F o x e s   &   F r i e n d s

Educational Site & Fox Rescue

Worldwide Fox Legality

It is imperative you check the legality BEFORE looking into a pet fox. Animals have been seized and euthanized in the past. The following sections below:

 

-Worldwide Fox Legality

-Detailed Laws

 

*Keep in mind no endangered animals can be kept as pets, and though some states might allow foxes, individual cities might ban them. It is always recommended to check local city ordinances before getting a fox. Laws also change all the time, so keep up to date.

 

**Laws current as of 03/13/2016 

Worldwide Fox Legality - By Country

UNITED STATES:

Alabama - NO, all species of fox are not legal in Alabama.

Alaska - NO, all species of fox are not legal in Alaska.

Arizona - NO, all species of fox are not legal in Arizona.

Arkansas - YES, all species of fox are legal in Arkansas.

California - NO, foxes are not legal in California.

Colorado - NO, foxes are not legal in Colorado.

Connecticut - NO, foxes are not legal in Connecticut.

Delaware - YES, foxes are legal in Delaware.

Florida - YES, foxes are legal in Florida.

Georgia - NO, foxes are not legal in Georgia.

Hawaii - NO, foxes are not legal in Hawaii.

Idaho - NO, foxes are not legal in Idaho.

Illinois - YES, foxes are legal in Illinois.

Indiana - YES, foxes are legal in Indiana.

Iowa - NO, foxes are not legal in Iowa.

Kansas - NO, foxes are not legal in Kansas.

Kentucky - there is no simple answer (see below).

Louisiana - YES, foxes are legal in Louisiana.

Maine - YES, foxes are legal in Maine.

 Maryland - NO, foxes are not legal in Maryland.

Massachusetts - NO, foxes are not legal in Massachusetts.

Michigan - YES, foxes are legal in Michigan

Minnesota - NO, foxes are not legal in Minnesota.

Mississippi - YES, foxes are legal in Mississippi.

Missouri - YES, foxes are legal in Missouri.

Montana - NO, foxes are not legal in Montana.

Nebraska - YES, foxes are legal in Nebraska.

Nevada - NO, foxes are not legal in Nevada.

New Hampshire - NO, foxes are not legal in New Hampshire.

New Jersey - NO, foxes are not legal in New Jersey.

New Mexico - NO, foxes are not legal in New Mexico.

New York - NO, most foxes are not legal in New York.

North Carolina - YES, foxes appear to be legal in North Carolina.

North Dakota - YES, foxes are legal in South Dakota.

Ohio - YES, foxes are legal in Ohio.

Oklahoma - YES, foxes are legal in Oklahoma.

Oregon - NO, foxes are not legal in Oregon.

Pennsylvania - YES, foxes are legal in Pennsylvania, but… (see below)

Rhode Island - YES, exotic foxes are legal in Rhode Island.

South Carolina - NO, foxes are not legal in South Carolina.

South Dakota - YES, foxes are legal in South Dakota.

Tennessee - YES, foxes are legal in Tennessee.

Texas - NO, foxes are not legal in Texas.

Utah - YES, some foxes are legal in Utah.

Vermont - NO, foxes are not legal in Vermont.

Virginia - YES, foxes are legal in Virginia.

Washington - NO, foxes are not legal in Washington.

Washington DC - NO, foxes are not legal in Washington DC.

West Virginia - NO, foxes are not legal in West Virginia.

Wisconsin - YES, foxes are legal in Wisconsin.

Wyoming - YES, some foxes are legal in Wyoming.

*Detailed information regarding permits listed below.

CANADA:

MANITOBA
Are foxes legal ➝ NO

SASKATCHEWAN
Are foxes legal ➝ NO

NOVA SCOTIA
Are foxes legal ➝ NO

ALBERTA
Are foxes legal ➝ NO

BRITISH COLUMBIA
Are foxes legal ➝ YES

ONTARIO
Are foxes legal ➝ YES

NEWFOUNDLAND
Are foxes legal ➝ NO

NEW BRUNSWICK
Are foxes legal ➝ YES

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (PEI)
Are foxes legal ➝ YES

NUNAVUT
Are foxes legal ➝ NO

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES (N.W.T)
Are foxes legal ➝ YES

YUKON TERRITORIES (YUKON)
Are foxes legal ➝ YES

QUÉBEC

Are foxes legal ➝ YES 

EUROPE:

Latvia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Romania: YESallow you to catch wild foxes and breed them/sell them as pets. All non-threatened species are legal, and purchasing from fur farms is legal too.

United Kingdom, Scotland: YES, allow you to keep, breed and sell captive-bred tame foxes as pets. Keeping, breeding or selling wild-caught or orphaned wild foxes is not legal, and any injured or orphaned wild foxes must be given to a wildlife rehabber and released as soon as they are able to survive on their own. 

Germany: YESyou need a license to have a fox, but otherwise, all non-threatened species are legal. The license is easy to obtain.

Finland: YESall species are legal, but the fox must come from an European breeder with paperwork to prove it. It is illegal to import a fox from other continents.

Ireland: NOall species of fox are illegal, whether they come from a pet fox breeder or not. The vaccine for foxes is not recognized there, hence why they are illegal to breed and own in the country. 

Norway: YES,importing a fox as a pet is legal, but you'd have to send an individual request to the Norwegian Directory for Nature Management, to the following land address: PB 5672 Sluppen 7485 Trondheim, Norway. You may also submit your application by email: [email protected] 

Italy: NOall foxes, except for Russian domesticated foxes (from Novosibirsk, Russia, with paperwork proving they come from there), are illegal.

Denmark and in the Netherlands: YESall species of fox, including natives, are legal without the need of a license. Importation is also permitted.

France and in Belgium: YESyou need a capacity certificate (CDC) to be in legal possession of a fox for personal purpose or in order to rehabilitate/release wild foxes.

Turkey: YESall non-threatened fox species, including native species, are legal without the need of a license. 

Austria, Holland and Poland: YESfennec foxes, arctic foxes and non-native red foxes are legal, without the need of a license.

Switzerland: SOME, 0nly fennec foxes are legal. No license is required in order to possess one.

OCEANA (Australia and Surroundings): 

AUSTRALIA

Are foxes legal ➝ NO
Foxes were legal in NSW, however, a new law has been passed in 2015 which prohibits anyone from owning a fox in the state. Current fox owners must apply and be granted a license to be able to continue to keep their foxes.

New Zealand - New Guinea - surrounding islands

Are foxes legal ➝ NO
In New Zealand and New Guinea, foxes of all species, especially red foxes, are illegal to be kept as pets, because they were introduced on the territory where they killed native wildlife, and thus, are considered pest. They can only be used for educational programs. 

ASIA:

Korea 

Are foxes legal ➝ YES
Fennec foxes, red foxes, arctic foxes, pale foxes and other non threatened species can legally be possessed, whether they come from captivity - breeders, zoological facilities, fur farms - or from the wild.

Japan

Are foxes legal ➝ YES
Fennec foxes, red foxes, arctic foxes, pale foxes and other non threatened species, regardless of their colour, can be legally possessed without the need of a license. The foxes must come from breeders, fur farms or zoological facilities. Keeping a wild-caught fox as a pet is illegal.

MIDDLE EAST:

Israel: NO, All foxes species are banned for private possession in Israel.

AFRICA:

In South Africa: YES, all non-threatened fox species are legal for private possession. 

In Ethiopia: YES, all non-threatened fox species are legal for private possession.

In Djibouti: YESall non-threatened fox species are legal for private possession.  


Permits will not be issued for foxes, raccoons and skunks purchased for import to Canada as a personal pet. Permit issuance may be considered for an animal that is in the owner's possession in the country of origin and accompanies the owner to Canada. It is the owner's responsibility to contact the applicable provincial authorities to request permission to keep such animals as pets and to obtain any required documentation. 

For laboratory research and scientific purposes, or for display in a recognized zoo, these animals must be imported under permit and are subject to a minimum thirty (30) day quarantine, but do not need to be accompanied. 

Foxes, skunks, raccoons, and ferrets may be imported for commercial purposes (breeding stock). 

For clarification of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency import policies, please contact a local CFIA Office. 

(1) Ferrets from the United States can be imported into Canada without an import permit if they are presented at the port of entry with a vaccination certificate, which has been signed by a licensed veterinarian and which states that the animals have been vaccinated against rabies in the year preceding the date of import. Ferrets less than three months of age are not subject to any import restrictions. 
Importation of Foxes, Skunks, Raccoons and Ferrets 
This information is current as of 2009-11-20. 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

An import permit issued by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency is required for the importation of foxes, skunks, raccoons and ferrets from any country, with the exception of ferrets from the United States (1). 

Permits will not be issued for foxes, raccoons and skunks purchased for import to Canada as a personal pet. Permit issuance may be considered for an animal that is in the owner's possession in the country of origin and accompanies the owner to Canada. It is the owner's responsibility to contact the applicable provincial authorities to request permission to keep such animals as pets and to obtain any required documentation. 

For laboratory research and scientific purposes, or for display in a recognized zoo, these animals must be imported under permit and are subject to a minimum thirty (30) day quarantine, but do not need to be accompanied. 

Foxes, skunks, raccoons, and ferrets may be imported for commercial purposes (breeding stock). 

For clarification of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency import policies, please contact a local CFIA Office. 

(1) Ferrets from the United States can be imported into Canada without an import permit if they are presented at the port of entry with a vaccination certificate, which has been signed by a licensed veterinarian and which states that the animals have been vaccinated against rabies in the year preceding the date of import. Ferrets less than three months of age are not subject to any import restrictions. 
Detailed Laws

 

UNITED STATES:

 

ALABAMA

To put it simply: no, all species of fox are not legal in Alabama.

Legalities:

220-2-.26 Restrictions On Possession, Sale, Importation And/Or Release Of Certain Animals And FIsh.

(1) No person, firm, corporation, partnership or association may possess, sell, offer for sale, bring, release, or cause to be brought or imported into the State of Alabama any of the following live fish or animals:

Any Walking Catfish or any other fish of the genus Clarias;

Any Piranha or any fish of the genus Serrasalmus;

Any Black Carp of the genus Mylopharyngodon;

Any species of sturgeon not native to Alabama;

Any species of Chinese perch (Siniperca spp.);

Any species of Snakehead fish (Channa spp.);

Any species of Mud carp (Cirrhinus spp.);

Blue back herring (Alsoa aestivalis);

Any species of fish “rudd” (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) or “roach” (Rutilus rutilus) or any hybrids of either species;

Any species of nonindigenous venomous reptile;

Any species of Mongoose;

San Juan Rabbits, Jack Rabbits or any other species of wild rabbit or hare; or

Any of the following from any area outside the state of Alabama; any member of the family Cervidae (to include but not be limited to deer, elk, moose, caribou), species of coyote, species of fox, species of raccoon, species of skunk, wild rodent, or strain of wild turkey, black bear (Ursus americanus), mountain lion (Felis concolor), bobcat (Felis rufus), Pronghorn Antelope (Antelocapridae), any nondomestic member of the families Suidae (pigs), Tayassuidae (peccaries), or Bovidae (except bison).

Law Citation: ALABAMA ADMIN CODE r. 220-2-.26 

 

ALASKA

To put it simply: no, all species of fox are not legal in Alaska.

Note:

  • If a species does not appear in section (b) of regulation 5 AAC 92.029, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game is forbidden from issuing a permit authorizing anyone to possess it as a pet.

Legalities:

5 AAC 92.029. Permit for possessing live game.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, or in AS 16, no person may possess, import, release, export, or assist in importing, releasing, or exporting, live game, unless the person holds a possession permit issued by the department.

(b) The following species, not including a hybrid of a game animal and a species listed in this subsection, may be possessed, imported, exported, bought, sold, or traded without a permit from the department but may not be released into the wild:
  • Common Name… Scientific Name
  • Dog… Canis familiaris
  • Cat… Felis catus
  • Sheep… Ovis aries
  • Goat… Capra hircus
  • Cattle…Bos taurus
  • Oxen… Bos spp.
  • Horse… Equus caballus
  • Guinea pig… Cavia porcellus
  • Reindeer (except feral reindeer)… Rangifer tarandus Var.
  • Llama…Lama peruana
  • Alpaca…Lama pacos
  • One-humped camel… Camelus dromedarius
  • Ass… Equus asinus Var.
  • Mule… Equus asinus x caballus
  • Swine… Sus scrofa Var.
  • European ferret… Mustela putorius furo
  • European rabbit… Oryctolagus cuniculus Var.
  • White rat… Rattus norvegicus Var. albinus
  • Mice: white, waltzing, singing… Mus musculus Var. shaker, piebald
  • Fay-tailed gerbil… Pachyuromys duprasi
  • Gerbil… Gerbillus spp.
  • Hamster (golden)… Mesocricetus auratus
  • Chinchilla… Chinchilla laniger
  • Cavy… Cavia aperea
  • Hedgehog, African Pygmy… Erinaceus albiventris
  • Chicken… Gallus gallus Var.
  • Pigeon… Columia livia Var.
  • Any Turkey species… Subfamily Meleagridinae
  • Any Pheasant, Junglefowl or Coturnix species… Subfamily Phasianinae
  • Any Guineafowl species… Subfamily Numidinae
  • Canary… Serinus canaria Var.
  • Parrot, parakeet, cockatiel, macaw, and other members of the Family Psittacidae not prohibited by federal or international law… Family Psittacidae
  • Toucan… Family Ramphastidae
  • Any New World Quail species (including Bobwhite)… Subfamily Odontophorinae
  • Mynah… Acridotheres spp.
  • Any Peafowl species… Acridotheres spp.
  • Any duck, goose, swan, or other migratory waterfowl which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service determines does not require a federal permit for private ownership… N/A
  • Chukar partridge… Alectoris chukar
  • Button “quail”… Family Turnicidae in the order Gruiformes
  • Any nonvenomous reptile (crocodile, alligator, snake, turtle, or lizard) Members of the bird families Fringillidae, Turdidae, Zosteripidae, Pycnonotidae, Timaliidae, and Ploceidae of non-Holarctic origin. Members of the bird families Columbidae and Trogonidae of non-nearctic origin… Class Reptilia
  • Elk (except feral and wild elk)… (cervus elaphus)
  • Bison (except feral and wild bison)… (Bison bison)
  • Muskoxen (except feral and wild muskoxen)… (Ovibos moschatus)
© The department may not issue a permit for the capture, possession, import, or export of any game animal, including a hybrid of a game animal and a species listed in (b) of this section, for use as a pet, exept that a person that possessed a chimpanzee as a pet before January 31, 2010 may obtain a permit from the department before July 1, 2010, in order to maintain possession of the chimpanzee in this state. The propagation of chimpanzees is prohibited in this state.

Citation: ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 5. §92.029.

ARIZONA

To put it simply: no, all species of fox are not legal in Arizona.

Note:

  • The only license given for restricted live wildlife is for educational purposes or commercial purposes only.

Legalities:

24. “Restricted live wildlife” means wildlife that cannot be imported, exported, or possessed without a special license or lawful exemption. Restricted live wildlife are listed in R12-4-406.

G. Unless specified otherwise, mammals listed below are restricted live wildlife as defined in R12-4-401. The taxonomic classification from Volumes I and II of Walker’s Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition, 1999, and not including any later edition, is the authority in the following designations. A copy is available for inspection at any Department office and from the Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

1. All species of the genus Didelphis. Common name: American opossums;

2. All species of the order Insectivora. Common names include: Insectivores, shrews, hedgehogs, tenrecs, solenodonts, and moles;

3. All species of the order Chiroptera. Common name: bats;

4. All species of the family Pongidae of the order Primates. Common names include: orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas;

5. All species of the order Xenarthra. Common names include: edentates; or sloths, anteaters, and armadillos;

6. All species of the order Lagomorpha, except the genus Oryctolagus. Common names include: pikas, rabbits, and hares. Genus Oryctolagus, containing domestic rabbits, is not wildlife;

7. All species of the following families of the order Rodentia. Common name: rodents.

a. The family Sciuridae. Common names: squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, woodchucks, and prairie dogs;

b. The family Geomyidae. Common name: pocket gophers;

c. The family Castoridae. Common name: beavers;

d. The family Erethizontidae. Common name: New World porcupines; and

e. The family Capromyidae. Common names include: hutias, coypus, or nutrias;

8. All species of the order Carnivora. Common names include: carnivores, skunks, raccoons, bears, foxes, and weasels; and

9. All species of the following families of the order Artiodactyla. Common name: even-toed ungulates.

a. The family Tayassuidae. Common name: peccaries;

b. The family Cervidae. Common names include: cervi;

d; or deer, elk, moose, wapiti, and red deer;

c. The family Antilocapridae. Common name: pronghorn; and

d. The family Bovidae. Common names include: cattle, buffalo, bison, oxen, duikers, antelopes, gazelles, goats, and sheep, except that the following are not restricted:

i. The genus Bubalus. Common name: water buffalo; and

ii. The genus Bison. Common name: bison, American bison or buffalo.

Citation: ARIZ. COMP. ADMIN R. & REGS. R12-4-406; R12-4-409; R12-4-417; R12-4-425; R12-4-426 

ARKANSAS

To put it simply: yes, all species of fox are legal in Arkansas.

Note:

  • Red and gray foxes cannot be imported from Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Wisconsin, Wyoming or Canada.
  • No permit is needed, however, a one-time importation permit is required in order to buy a red or gray fox from out of state.
  • Non-native foxes such as arctics and fennecs must have written proof that they were legally obtained (receipt and USDA papers), and a health certificate issued by an accredited veterinarian.

The legal jargon:

09.10 WILDLIFE IMPORTATION PERMIT REQUIRED

09-07, 01-13

(A) It is unlawful to import live wildlife into Arkansas without a valid Wildlife Importation Permit issued by the Commission. This permit shall be required regardless of the final destination of the wildlife, whether in Arkansas or points beyond. It also is unlawful for any person to receive, acquire, purchase or possess any wildlife imported into Arkansas in violation of this regulation.

(B) It is unlawful for the holder of a Wildlife Importation Permit to cause or permit any wild animal or bird to be imported into Arkansas under inhumane or unhealthy conditions (Addendum F1.04).

09.11 IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN LIVING WILDLIFE PROHIBITED

04-13

It is unlawful to import, ship, transport, or carry into Arkansas by any means, or to cause to be imported, receive, or to assist in any manner in the importation of any of the following living wildlife:

(A) Any member of the Family Cervidae (cervids).

(B) Raccoons.

© Bats.

(D) Skunks.

(E) Coyotes that originate from or have lived in Alaska, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, Wisconsin, Wyoming or Canada.

(F) Gray and red foxes that originate or have lived in Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Wisconsin, Wyoming or Canada.

9.14 NATIVE WILDLIFE PETS RESTRICTED

04-12

It is unlawful to possess native wildlife as pets except as follows:

(A) Native wildlife captured from the wild:

(1) No more than six per household of any combination of the following animals may be possessed as pets:

(a) Hand-captured bobcat, coyote, gray fox, red fox, opossum, rabbit, raccoon and squirrel; and

(b) Deer that were captured by hand prior to July 1, 2012 may be retained until their death.

© Hand-captured native non-game wildlife other than birds, bats, alligator snapping turtles, ornate box turtles, hellbenders, troglodytic species (cave dwellers), or those animals defined as endangered species.

(B) Captive born native wildlife: No more than six per household of any commercially obtained, captive born native wildlife may be possessed as personal pets in compliance with the following restrictions:

(1) Commercially obtained, captive born wildlife pets and/or their offspring shall not be confined with the same species of wild born animals and/or their offspring.

(2) Owners shall maintain records of proof of legal ownership of such animals including licenses, bills of sale, bills of lading, receipts, invoices and copies of Wildlife Importation Permits or other satisfactory evidence. The date of acquisition, place of origin, and the name, address, and telephone number of the person from whom the wildlife was acquired shall be recorded. Owners shall provide these records to the Commission upon demand.

(3) Commercially obtained, captive born wildlife pets or their offspring shall only be sold in compliance with Code 09.07.

(4) Males and females of the same species must be kept in separate enclosures, or if kept in the same enclosure, the owner shall provide proof that all males within the enclosure have been neutered.

(5) Owners of commercially obtained or captive born white-tailed deer or elk that were acquired prior to June 30, 2005, and that are kept as personal pets may retain ownership of such animals provided they registered with the Wildlife Management Division by June 30, 2008, and are in compliance with all provisions of this regulation.

(6) Owners must immediately test all deer and elk that die in captivity for CWD and forward copies of test results to the Commission within seven days of receipt.

(7) All cervids kept in compliance with (B) of this regulation shall be confined within an enclosure that complies with the following requirements:

(a) Enclosures shall have a perimeter fence that is not less than eight (8) feet in height and shall be constructed so as to prohibit the escape of confined cervids and the ingress of native cervids.

(b) The area of the enclosure shall not be less than 200 square feet for the first cervid and shall be increased in size 150 square feet for each additional cervid.

(8) All wildlife possessed in captivity shall be maintained in enclosures, pens, or cages that are sufficiently strong to prevent escape of the wildlife and that will protect the wildlife from injury.

© It is unlawful for anyone to keep a native wildlife pet under inhumane or unhealthy conditions.

09.16 LIVE FOX/COYOTE PERMIT REQUIRED

09-07

It is unlawful to sell or offer for sale live gray fox, red fox or coyote captured from the wild in Arkansas without first obtaining a Live Fox and Coyote Permit from the Commission.



002.00.1-09.02. Possession of Non-Native Wildlife in Captivity Restricted

(A) It is unlawful to possess captive non-native wildlife not excepted under Code 09.01, unless the possessor can produce written documentation that such wildlife was legally obtained and has been certified by an accredited veterinarian to be free of diseases and parasites that may pose an adverse risk to native wildlife.

(B) It is unlawful for any person to possess mountain lions (Puma concolor) except in compliance with Codes 09.07; 09.13.

© It is unlawful to possess tigers, African lions and all species of bears not in compliance with Ark. Code Ann. §§ 20-19-501-511 or Code 09.07.

(D) It is unlawful to keep non-native wildlife under inhumane or unhealthy conditions.

Citation: ARKANSAS CODE ANNOTATED §20-19-501-§20-19-511 & GFC 18.17; ARKANSAS STATE GAME AND FISH COMMISSION CODE BOOK 09.02, 09.10, 09.11, 09.14, 09.16

CALIFORNIA

To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in California.

The legal jargon:

§ 671. Importation, Transportation and Possession of Live Restricted Animals.

 (a) It shall be unlawful to import, transport, or possess live animals restricted in subsection © below except under permit issued by the department. Permits may be issued by the department as specified herein and for purposes designated in Section 671.1 subject to the conditions and restrictions designated by the department. Except for mammals listed in Fish and Game Code Section 3950 or live aquatic animals requiring a permit pursuant to Fish and Game Code Section 2271, no permit is required by this section for any animal being imported, transported, or possessed pursuant to any other permit issued by the department. Cities and counties may also prohibit possession or require a permit for these and other species not requiring a state permit.

(b) The commission has determined the below listed animals are not normally domesticated in this state. Mammals listed to prevent the depletion of wild populations and to provide for animal welfare are termed “welfare animals”, and are designated by the letter “W”. Those species listed because they pose a threat to native wildlife, the agriculture interests of the state or to public health or safety are termed “detrimental animals” and are designated by the letter “D”. The department shall include the list of welfare and detrimental wild animals as part of DFG MANUAL NO. 671 (2/25/92) IMPORTATION, TRANSPORTATION AND POSSESSION OF RESTRICTED SPECIES, to be made available to all permittees and other interested individuals.

(2) Class Mammalia-Mammals

(A) Order Primates-Monkeys, Apes

All species (W), except humans in the Family Hominidae are not restricted.

(B) Order Xenarthra-Sloths, Anteaters, Armadillos, etc.

All species:

1. Family Dasypodidae-Armadillos-All Species (D).

2. Family Bradypodidae-Sloths-(W).

3. Family Myrmecophagidae-Anteaters-(W).

© Order Marsupialia-Marsupials or Pouched Animals

All species (W).

(D) Order Insectivora-Shrews, Moles, Hedgehogs, etc.

All species (D).

(E) Order Dermoptera-Gliding Lemurs

All species (D).

(F) Order Chiroptera-Bats

All species (D).

(G) Order Monotremata-Spiny Anteaters, Platypuses

All Species (W).

(H) Order Pholidota-Pangolins or Scaly Anteaters

All species (W).

(I) Order Lagomorpha-Pikas, Rabbits, and Hares

All species, (D), except domesticated races of rabbits and hares of the Family Leporidae are not restricted.

(J) Order Rodentia-Hamsters, Field Mice, Voles, Muskrats, Gerbils, Squirrels, Chipmunks, Woodchucks, and Prairie Dogs

1. All species (D), except:

a. Ondatra zibethica (Muskrats) are not restricted under conditions set forth in Fish and Game Code Section 2250;

b. Domesticated races of golden hamsters of the species Mesocricetus auratus and domesticated races of dwarf hamsters of the Genus Phodopusare not restricted;

c. Domesticated races of rats or mice (white or albino; trained, dancing or spinning, laboratory-reared) are not restricted;

d. Domesticated races of guinea pigs of the species Cavia porcellus are not restricted; and

e. Domesticated races of chinchillas of the species Chinchilla laniger are not restricted.

(K) Order Carnivora-Raccoons, Ringtailed Cats, Kinkajous, Coatis, Cacomistles, Weasels, Ferrets, Skunks, Polecats, Stoats, Mongoose, Civets, Wolves, Foxes, Coyotes, Lions, Tigers, Ocelots, Bobcats, Servals, Leopards, Jaguars, Cheetahs, Bears, etc.

1. Family Felidae-All species (W) except:

a. Acinonyx jubatus (cheetahs)-(D).

b. Domestic cats and hybrids of domestic cats are not restricted.

2. Family Canidae-All species (W).

a. Wolf hybrids Canis familiaris (domestic dog) x Canis lupus (wolf) are considered F1 generation wolf hybrids and are restricted (W).

i. No state permit is required to possess the progeny of F1 generation wolf hybrids, but cities and counties may prohibit possession or require a permit.

b. Domesticated dogs are not restricted.

3. Family Viverridae-All species (D).

4. Family Procyonidae-All species-(D), except:

a. Ailuris fulgens (Lesser panda)-(W).

b. Aiuropoda melanoleuca (Giant panda)-(W).

c. Bassariscus astutus (Ringtail or Ringtailed cat)-(W).

d. Jentinkia sumichrasti (Mexican and Central American cacomistle)-(W).

5. Family Mustelidae-All species (D), except:.

a. Ambloynx cinerea (Oriental small-clawed otter)-(W).

b. Aonyx capensis (African clawless otter)-(W).

c. Pteronura brasiliensis (Giant otter)-(W).

d. GenusLutra (River otters)-(W).

6. All other Families-(W).

(L) Order Tubulidentata-Aardvarks

All species-(W).

(M) Order Proboscidae-Elephants

All species-(W).

(N) Order Hyracoidae-Hyraxes

All species-(W).

(O) Order Sirenia-Dugongs, Manatees

All species-(W).

(P) Order Perissodactyla-Horses, Zebras, Tapirs, Rhinoceroses, etc.

All species (W), except Family Equidae are not restricted.

(Q) Order Artiodactyla-Swine, Peccaries, Camels, Deer, Elk, Moose, Antelopes, Cattle, Goats, Sheep, etc.

All species (D) except:

1. Bos taurus and Bos indicus (Domestic cattle); Bos grunniens (Yak); Bubalus bulalis (Asian water buffalo); Ovis aries Domestic sheep); Capra hircus (Domestic goat); Sus scrofa domestica (Domestic swine); Llama glama (Llama); Llama pacos (Alpaca); Llama guanicoe (Guanaco); Hybrids of llama, alpaca and guanacos; Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius (Camels); and Bison bison (American bison), are not restricted.

2. Permits may be issued for species of Elk (Genus Cervus) which are already maintained within California; and

3. Permits may be issued pursuant to Section 676 for importing, breeding, slaughter and sale of the meat and other parts of fallow deer (Dama dama) for commercial purposes.

Citation: CALIFORNIA CODE REGS. Tit. 14, §671 and §671.1.

 COLORADO

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Colorado.

The legal jargon:

§406-8 - CHAPTER 11, WILDLIFE PARKS AND UNREGULATED WILDLIFE

Introduction to Chapter 11

In this introduction to chapter 11 we outline possession requirements for live wildlife as found in Colorado wildlife law. There is growing interest in the private possession of live wildlife. At the same time there is considerable confusion over the laws regarding such private possession. Colorado wildlife law generally prohibits the importation, live possession, sale, barter, trade, or purchase of any species of wildlife native to Colorado (33-6-113(1), C.R.S.). In addition, these same laws restrict or prohibit the importation and possession of exotic (non-native) wildlife (33-6-109(4), C.R.S.).

Live possession of Wildlife is permitted only under the exceptions noted below and as further detailed in Wildlife Commission regulations and Colorado statutes, See C.R.S. 33-1-106, 33-6-109, 33-6-113, 33-6-114, 18-9-202. The Wildlife Commission also maintains a “prohibited species” list in Chapter 0. The possession of these species is severely restricted.

The Wildlife Commission establishes these regulations in an effort to balance its mandate to protect native species of wildlife in Colorado from the impacts which could be caused by the introduction of exotic (non-native) species with the public interest and demand for the private possession of live wildlife.

Reptiles and Amphibians - Chapter 10 of Wildlife Commission regulations provide that any person can possess up to six live native reptiles or native amphibians for personal use except for those species whose possession are specifically prohibited in chapter 0 or 10. These animals may not be sold, traded, or bartered.

Scientific Collection permit - Chapter 13 allows for the lawful possession of live wildlife under the authority of a scientific collection permit. Specific permit conditions and restrictions apply and may vary from permit to permit based on the needs of the permittee as well as appropriate protection of wildlife resources.

Wildlife Rehabilitation - Chapter 14 allows for the lawful possession of live wildlife by licensed rehabilitators as a means to care for sick, injured or orphaned wildlife. With few exceptions, possession is allowed only long enough for the animal to recover or mature.

Falconry and Hawking - Chapter 6 allows for the possession of falcons, hawks, and eagles for falconry purposes. Persons possessing these birds must be properly licensed by both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Division of Wildlife.

Aquaculture - Colorado statutory law recognizes that fish may be held and propagated under the authority of an aquaculture permit issued by the Department of Agriculture. In addition, chapter 12 authorizes the possession of fish for use in aquaria with some restrictions.

Bait dealers - Chapter 1, fishing, authorizes bait dealers and individuals to possess certain live fish as bait. Specific restrictions apply.

Snapping turtles - Chapter 0, General Provisions, authorizes the live possession of snapping turtles by any person.

Wildlife Park Licenses - Chapter 11 provides for lawful possession, propagation and sale of native and exotic wildlife via a mandatory licensing process. This includes possession of any live wildlife, other than those discussed above or listed as “unregulated” wildlife. Examples include: Any live mammals (including furbearers), game birds, or other terrestrial wildlife not specifically listed on the unregulated wildlife list. Persons possessing live wildlife under a Commercial Wildlife Parks License are required to maintain their commercial status.

Unregulated Wildlife - No license is required for the private possession or purchase of animals which are included on the unregulated wildlife list or the domestic animal list. These animals may be sold, bartered, traded, exchanged, propagated or purchased by any person provided that importation requirements of the Department of Agriculture, health certifications, or any other federal, state or local requirements are met. There are no possession limits.

These are chapter 11 regulations clarify that it is unlawful to intentionally release any wildlife declared to be unregulated. The wildlife on these lists are typically sold, purchased, possessed and propagated as pets, maintained by hobbyists, or raised for food and fiber within Colorado’s alternative livestock industry. If an animal is not listed on either the unregulated wildlife or the domestic animal list it cannot be lawfully sold to an unlicensed person unless specifically authorized by Commission regulation.

#1103 - EXEMPTIONS FROM LICENSE REQUIREMENTS:

A. Domestic animals - The following animals are considered domestic and are exempted from the requirements of Wildlife Commission regulations:

  • Domestic dog (Canis familiaris) including hybrids with wild canids
  • Domestic cat (Felis catus) including hybrids with wild felines
  • Domestic horse (Equus caballus) including hybrids with Equus assinus
  • Domestic ass, burro, and donkey (Equus assinus)
  • Domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus)
  • Domestic sheep (Ovis aries)
  • Domestic goat (Capra hircus)
  • Domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica)
  • Domesticated races of hamsters (Mesocricetus spp.)
  • Domesticated races of mink (Mustela vison)
  • Domesticated races of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)
  • Domesticated races of gerbils (Meriones unquiculatus)
  • Domesticated races of chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger)
  • Domesticated races of rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus)
  • Domesticated races of mice (Mus musculus)
  • Domesticated races of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
  • Domesticated races of chickens (Gallus)
  • Domesticated races of turkey (Meleagria gallopavo) distinguished morphologically from wild birds
  • Domesticated races of ducks and geese (Anatidae) distinguishable morphologically from wild birds
  • Domesticated races of European ferret (Mustela putorius)
  • Domesticated races of pigeons (Columba domestica and Columba livia) and feral pigeons
  • Domesticated races of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris)
  • Domesticated races of peafowl (Pavo cristatus)
  • Bison (Bison) including hybrids with domestic cattle
  • Ostrich (Struthio spp.)
  • Llama (Lama qlama)
  • Rhea (Rhea spp.)
  • Emu (Dromiceius spp.)
  • Alpaca (Lama pacos)
  • Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)
  • Yak (Bos grunniens)
  • Camels (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius)

B. Unregulated Wildlife - Prior to adoption of this regulation (#1103B), possession of the listed species was expressly prohibited by Section 33-6-109(4), C.R.S. The decision of the Wildlife Commission to authorize this possession as herein provided is based on the scientific evidence available to it at the time of adoption of the regulation. The Wildlife Commission retains the statutory authority and duty to amend these regulations and to impose requirements, restrictions, and/or prohibition on possession of any of the listed species if and when further evidence comes to the Wildlife Commission’s attention which makes such amendments appropriate.

Except for the provisions of section #007 regarding importation, #008 regarding the prohibited species list, #009 regarding release of live wildlife, and section #1114 regarding the addition of species to the unregulated wildlife list, the wildlife enumerated in this list are otherwise exempted from the requirements of Wildlife Commission regulations.

Unregulated wildlife may be imported, sold, bartered, traded, transferred, possessed, propagated and transported in Colorado provided that all importation, disease requirements and any other state, local or federal requirements are met. Statutory restrictions still apply.

All marine animals (vertebrates and invertebrates) except for anadromous and catadromous species.

Mammals:

  • African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris, Erinaceus albiventris)
  • Sugar Gliders (Petaurus breviceps)
  • Short-tailed Possum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Dama Wallaby (Tammar Wallaby) Macropus eugenii
  • Swamp Wallaby Wallabia bicolor
  • Bennet Wallaby (Red-necked Wallaby) Macropus rufogriseus
  • Red Kangaroo Macropus rufus
  • Wallaroo Macropus robustus

Citation: COLORADO CODE REGULATION 2 CCR §406-8

CONNETICUT

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Connecticut.

The legal jargon:

§ 26-40a. Possession of potentially dangerous animal. Exemptions. Seizure, relocation and disposal. Penalties.

(a) No person shall possess a potentially dangerous animal. For the purposes of this section, the following wildlife, or any hybrid thereof, shall be considered potentially dangerous animals:

(1) The felidae, including, but not limited to, the lion, leopard, cheetah, jaguar, ocelot, jaguarundi cat, puma, lynx and bobcat;

(2) The canidae, including, but not limited to, the wolf, and coyote;

(3) The ursidae, including, but not limited to, the black bear, grizzly bear and brown bear; and

(4) The hominidae, including, but not limited to, the gorilla, chimpanzee and orangutan.

(b) A primate that weighs less than thirty-five pounds at maturity and that was imported or possessed by a person in this state prior to October 1, 2003, shall not be considered a potentially dangerous animal pursuant to this section.

© Any such animal illegally possessed may be ordered seized and may be relocated or disposed of as determined by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection. The Department of Environmental Protection shall issue a bill to the owner or person in illegal possession of such potentially dangerous animal for all costs of seizure, care, maintenance, relocation or disposal of such animal. Additionally, any person who violates any provision of this section shall be assessed a civil penalty not to exceed two thousand dollars, to be fixed by the court, for each offense. Each violation shall be a separate and distinct offense and in the case of a continuing violation, each day’s continuance thereof shall be deemed to be a separate and distinct offense. The Commissioner of Environmental Protection may request the Attorney General to institute an action in Superior Court to recover such penalty and any amounts owed pursuant to a bill issued in accordance with this section and for an order providing such equitable and injunctive relief as the court deems appropriate.

(d) The provisions of this section shall not apply to municipal parks, zoos, accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums or the Zoological Association of America, public nonprofit aquaria, nature centers, museums, or exhibitors licensed or registered with the United States Department of Agriculture or laboratories and research facilities maintained by scientific or educational institutions licensed or registered with the United States Department of Agriculture or to a person possessing a Bengal cat certified by an internationally recognized multiple-cat domestic feline breeding association as being without wild parentage for a minimum of four prior generations which cat was registered with the Commissioner of Agriculture on or before October 1, 1996, provided no such cat may be imported into this state after June 6, 1996. In any action taken by any official of the state or any municipality to control rabies, a Bengal cat shall be considered not vaccinated for rabies in accordance with accepted veterinary practice.

(e) Any person who wilfully violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

 

§ 26-55. Permit for importing, introducing into state, possessing or liberating live fish, wild birds, wild mammals, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. Regulations. Exemptions. Seizure, relocation and disposal. Penalties.

(a) Except as provided in subsection © of this section, no person shall import or introduce into the state, or possess or liberate therein, any live fish, wild bird, wild mammal, reptile, amphibian or invertebrate unless such person has obtained a permit therefor from the commissioner. Such permit may be issued at the discretion of the commissioner under such regulations as the commissioner may prescribe. The commissioner shall by regulation prescribe the numbers of live fish, wild birds, wild mammals, reptiles, amphibians or invertebrates of certain species which may be imported, possessed, introduced into the state or liberated therein. The commissioner may by regulation exempt certain species or groups of live fish from the permit requirements. The commissioner shall by regulation determine which species of wild birds, wild mammals, reptiles, amphibians or invertebrates must meet permit requirements. The commissioner may totally prohibit the importation, possession, introduction into the state or liberation therein of certain species which the commissioner has determined may be a potential threat to humans, agricultural crops or established species of plants, fish, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians or invertebrates. The commissioner shall by regulation exempt from permit requirements organizations or institutions such as municipal parks, zoos, laboratories and research facilities maintained by scientific or educational institutions, museums, public nonprofit aquaria or nature centers where live fish, wild birds, wild mammals, reptiles, amphibians or invertebrates are held in strict confinement. For the purpose of this subsection and any regulation adopted pursuant to this subsection, ferrets (Mustela putorius), hedgehogs of the family Erinaceidae, genera Atelerix, sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps) and degu (Octodon degus) shall not be deemed to be wild mammals.

(b) Any such fish, bird, mammal, reptile, amphibian or invertebrate illegally imported into the state or illegally possessed therein may be seized by any representative of the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and may be relocated or disposed of as determined by the commissioner. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall issue a bill to the owner or person in illegal possession of such animal for all costs of seizure, care, maintenance, relocation or disposal for such animal.

© Any person who violates any provision of this section or any regulation adopted by the commissioner pursuant to this section shall be assessed a civil penalty not to exceed one thousand dollars, to be fixed by the court, for each offense. Each violation shall be a separate and distinct offense. In the case of a continuing violation, each day’s continuance thereof shall be deemed to be a separate and distinct offense. The Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection may request the Attorney General to institute an action in Superior Court to recover such civil penalty and any amounts owed pursuant to a bill issued in accordance with subsection (b) of this section and for an order providing such equitable and injunctive relief as the court deems appropriate.

(d) Any person who willfully violates any provision of this section or any regulation adopted by the commissioner pursuant to this section shall be guilty of a class C misdemeanor.

Citation: CONNECTICUT GENERAL STATUTE §26-40a & §26-55

DELAWARE

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Delaware.

The legal jargon:

15.0 Collection or Sale of Native Wildlife

(Penalty Section 7 Del.C. §103(d))

15.1 Commercial Collection.

15.1.1 Unless otherwise provided by law or regulation of the Department, it shall be unlawful for any person to collect, possess, import, cause to be imported, export, cause to be exported, buy, sell or offer for sale any native wildlife species or any part thereof for commercial purposes without a permit from the Director. The permit shall limit the terms and conditions for collecting or possessing said wildlife within the State.

15.1.2 Notwithstanding subsection 15.1.1 of this section, native wildlife species may be possessed, imported, sold or offered for sale for commercial purposes without a permit from the Director if there is written documentation to confirm that said wildlife was legally taken in and transported from another state.

No person shall bring into this State, possess, sell or exhibit any live wild mammal or hybrid of a wild mammal or live reptile not native to or generally found in Delaware without first securing a permit under this chapter. The Department of Agriculture may adopt regulations to exempt such mammals and reptiles that do not represent a significant threat to community interests from the provisions of this chapter. Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter to the contrary, except for medical or psychological research or for display in any licensed zoological park or traveling circus, no person shall bring into this State, possess, sell or exhibit any poisonous snake not native to or generally found in Delaware where the venom of such snake poses a risk of serious injury or death to a human, and no permit for the same shall be issued by the Department of Agriculture.

The Department of Agriculture shall enforce this chapter and may issue a permit where the possession or exhibition of a live wild mammal or hybrid of a wild mammal or live reptile will be in the public interest, and may promulgate rules and regulations for the proper enforcement of this chapter. The Department may designate agencies authorized to conduct animal cruelty enforcement and/or dog control enforcement to enforce the provisions of this chapter. The Department shall receive a fee of $25 for each and every permit issued. Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to prevent the use of any live wild mammal or hybrid of a wild mammal or live reptile in medical or psychological research or for display in any municipal zoological park or traveling circus after issuance of a permit.

§ 7203. Penalties.

Whoever violates this chapter shall for each offense be fined not more than $500, imprisoned not more than 30 days, or both. Justices of the peace shall have jurisdiction over offenses under this chapter.

Citation: DELAWARE ADMIN. CODE 15.0-15.1; DELAWARE CODE ANN tit. 3 §7201-7203

FLORIDA

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Florida.

The legal jargon:

68A-6.0011. Possession of Wildlife in Captivity; Permit Requirements.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this Title, no person shall possess any native or non-native wildlife in captivity except as authorized by permit issued in accordance with Section 379.3761 or 379.3762, F.S., and as provided in this chapter.

(2) The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to entities operating solely as research facilities, which are registered and regulated as such in accordance with Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131, et. seq.) and regulations promulgated thereunder, provided the following requirements are met:

(a) Such facilities must maintain on premises a detailed research proposal which shall state with particularity the research objectives, methodology, and study duration, and outline planned safegaurds to assure proper containment of the wildlife. Maintain an annual record of progress toward the research project objectives. Such research proposal and record of progress shall be available for inspection upon request of Commission personnel.

(b) Such facilities housing wildlife must maintain such wildlife in cages or enclosures which meet the structural requirements as specified in Rule 68A-6.003, F.A.C.

(3) The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to persons possessing the following non-native wildlife species exclusively for the purpose of production of meat, skins or hides, feathers or progeny thereof, and not for personal possession or public display or exhibition:

(a) Ostrich

(b) Cassowary

© Rhea

(d) Emu

(e) Bison

68A-6.002. Categories of Captive Wildlife.

(1) The Commission hereby establishes the following categories of wildlife including their taxonomic sucessors and subspecies thereof:

(a) Class I:

1. Chimpanzees (genus Pan)

2. Gorillas (genus Gorilla)

3. Gibbons and Siamangs (family Hylobatidae)

4. Drills and mandrills (genus Mandrillus)

5. Orangutans (genus Pongo)

6. Baboons (genus Papio)

7. Gelada baboons (genus Theropithecus)

8. Snow leopards (Panthera uncia)

9. Leopards (Panthera pardus)

10. Jaguars (Panthera onca)

11. Tigers (Panthera tigris)

12. Lions (Panthera leo)

13. Bears (family Ursidae)

14. Rhinoceros (family Rhinocerotidae)

15. Elephants (family Elephantidae)

16. Hippopotamuses (family Hippopotamidae)

17. Cape buffalos and Gaur (family Bovidae)

18. Crocodiles (except dwarf and Congo) (family Crocodylidae)

19. Gavials (family Gavialidae)

20. Black caimans (Melanosuchus niger)

21. Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis)

22. Hyenas and Aardwolf (family Hyaenidae)

23. Cougars, panthers (Puma concolor)

24. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jabatus)

(b) Class II:

1. Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta)

2. Uakaris (genus Cacajao)

3. Mangabeys (genus Cercocebus)

4. Guenons (genus Cercopithecus)

5. Patas monkeys (genus Erythrocebus)

6. Vervet, Grivet or Green monkeys (genus Chlorocebus)

7. Sakis (genus Chiropotes and Pithecea)

8. Guereza monkeys (genus Colobus)

9. Idris (genus Indri)

10. Macaques and Celebes black apes (genus Macaca)

11. Langurs (genus Presbytis)

12. Douc langurs (genus Pygathrix)

13. Snub-nosed langurs (genus Phinopithecus)

14. Proboscis monkeys (genus Nasalis)

15. Servals (Leptailurus serval)

16. European and Canadian lynx (Lynx lynx)

17. Bobcats (Lynx rufus)

18. Caracals (Caracal caracal)

19. African golden cats (Profelis aurata)

20. Temminck’s golden cats (Profelis temmincki)

21. Fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrina)

22. Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)

23. Clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa)

24. Wolves, coyotes, jackals (family Canidae)

25. Indian dholes (Cuon alpinus)

26. African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus)

27. Wolverines (Gulo gulo)

28. Honey badgers (Mellivora capensis)

29. American badgers (Taxides taxus)

30. Old World badgers (Meles meles)

31. Binturongs (Arctictis binturong)

32. Dwarf crocodiles (Osteolaemus tetraspis)

33. Alligators, caimans (family Alligatoridae)

34. Ostrich (Struthio camelus)

35. Cassowary (Casuarius spp.)

36. Giraffe and Okapi (family Giraffidae)

37. Tapir (family Tapiridae)

38. Wild cattle; forest, woodland and aridland antelope; and similar species of non-native hoofstock (family Bovidae)

Such non-native hoofstock to include: Forest buffalo, Banteng, Anoa, Waterbuck, Wildebeest, Hartebeest, Eland, Kudu, Nilgai, Bongo, lechwe, Roan and Sable antelope, Sitatunga, Bontebok, Blesbok, Topi, Kob, Addax, Oryx, Gemsbok, and other wild species of the family Bovidae which are of similar size, habits and nature.

© Class III: All other wildlife not listed herein, except those for which a permit is not required pursuant to Rule 68A-6.0022, F.A.C.

(d) Hybrids resulting from the cross between wildlife and domestic animal, which are substantially similar in size, characteristics and behavior so as to be indistinguishable from the wild animal shall be regulated as wildlife at the higher and more restricted class of the wild parent.

(2) Except as provided in Rule 68A-6.0021, F.A.C., Class I wildlife shall not be possessed for personal use.

(3) Persons possessing any captive wildlife for purposes of public display or sale shall obtain a permit as specified in Section 379.3761, F.S.

(4) Persons possessing Class II wildlife as personal use wildlife shall purchase a permit as provided in Section 379.3762, F.S.

(5) Persons possessing Class III wildlife as personal use wildlife shall obtain a no-cost permit from the Executive Director.

(6) Fox, skunks, bats, raccoons, or white tail deer taken from the wild shall not be possessed as personal use wildlife and shall be possessed only in accordance with permits issued under Rules 68A-9.002, 68A-9.006, F.A.C., or Section 379.3761, F.S.

68A-6.004. Standard Caging Requirements for Captive Wildlife.

(1) No captive wildlife shall be confined in any cage or other enclosure which contains more individual animals, or is smaller in dimension than as specified in this section, or is not equipped as specified in this section, except as defined in Rule 68A-6.0041, F.A.C., or as authorized in accordance with the following:

Requests for deviations from standard caging or enclosure requirements may be granted to allow for different size configuration (length, width and height) if the required square footage is adequate and if the locomotory needs of the animal(s) are not compromised. Wet or dry moats may be substituted for the required fencing for retaining some species of wildlife. Any proposed deviations from the standard caging or enclosure requirements, or proposals to use wet or dry moats to substitute for fencing, or proposals to use open air habitats except as provided herein, must be approved in writing by the Commission prior to the use of the cage or enclosure for housing animals.

(2) Definitions: Where specified in this section, wildlife cages and enclosures shall be equipped to provide for the protection and welfare of the animals. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to:

(a) Shelter, nest box or den: A structure that protects captive wildlife from the elements (weather conditions). Such structures may vary in size depending on the security and biological needs of the species. They are particularly described as follows:

1. Shelter: A structure which shall provide protection from the elements and from extremes in temperature that are detrimental to the health and welfare of the animal. When vegetation and landscaping is available to serve as protection from the elements, access to a shelter shall also be provided during inclement weather conditions. Such shelter shall be attached to or adjacent to the paddock, habitat, or enclosure.

2. Nest box or den: An enclosed shelter that provides a retreat area within, attached to, or adjacent to a cage or enclosure of specified size, which shall provide protection from the elements and from extremes in temperature that are detrimental to the health and welfare of the animal.

(b) Elevated platform or perching area: A surface or structure, either natural or manmade, positioned above the floor, or above the grade level of the cage or enclosure, that will provide a resting area for the animal(s).

© Original floor area: The total square footage required for the initial number of animals specified. For example, this is calculated by finding the new total area required for 4 squirrel monkeys when the original floor area equals 20? for 1 or 2 animals (4? x 5? x 5? high). For each additional animal, there is an increase in cage or enclosure size by 25 percent of original floor area. For two additional monkeys: 25% x 20? x 2 animals = 10?; add 10? to 20? = 30 total square feet of floor area required for 4 monkeys. New cages or enclosures can be 6? x 5? x 5? high, or any width/length dimension that equals or exceeds the increased cage or enclosure space.

(d) Gnawing and chewing items: Natural or artificial materials that provide for the health of teeth, so as to, keep teeth sharp, wear down enamel and promote general oral hygiene. Gnawing items include, but are not limited to, logs and trees. Chewing items include, but are not limited to, woody stems, knuckle bones, and rawhide objects; suitability dependent upon species.

(4) Carnivores and Certain Omnivores with Similar Requirements:

(h) Wild Canids.

In addition to the requirements of this section, each cage or enclosure shall be equipped with a shelter(s)/ den(s) that shall accommodate all the animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be noninjurious, and may include, but is not limited to boxes, balls, bones, barrels, drums, rawhide, pools, etc.

1. Foxes, small (e.g., Fennec, kit)

a. For one or two animals, a cage 6 feet by 4 feet, 4 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.

b. Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

2. Foxes (e.g., red, grey, Arctic, bat eared, bush dogs)

a. For one or two animals, a cage 8 feet by 6 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.

b. Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Citation: FLORIDA ADMIN. CODE 68A-6.0011, 68A-6.002, 68A-6.004

GEORGIA

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Georgia.

The legal jargon:

Keeping Georgia Wildlife as Pets

The animals listed below are examples of the exotic species regulated under Georgia Law. The Department should be consulted before any exotic animals which are not normally domesticated in Georgia are acquired. Hybrids or crosses between any combination of domestic animals, wildlife, or regulated wild animals and all subsequent generations are regulated in Georgia and may not be held without a license. The exotic species listed below, except where otherwise noted, may not be held as pets in Georgia. This list is not all inclusive.

  • Marsupials (wallabies, kangaroos, sugar gliders, etc.); all species
  • Insectivores (shrews, moles, hedgehogs, tenrecs, etc.); all species
  • Flying lemurs; all species
  • Bats; all species
  • Primates (monkeys, apes, etc.); all species
  • Sloths, armadillos, etc.; all species
  • Pangolins or scaly anteaters; all species
  • Rabbits and hares; all species except those normally domesticated
  • Rodents (capybaras, cavies, prairie dogs, degus, etc.); all species except those normally domesticated in Georgia such as hamsters, gerbils, and guinea pigs
  • Whales, dolphins, etc.; all species
  • Carnivores (weasels, ferrets, foxes, cats, bears, wolves, etc.); all species.
  • Aardvark; all species
  • Elephants; all species
  • Conies; all species
  • Manatee, dugong; all species
  • Ungulates (hoof stock); all species except American bison, water buffalos, and llamas
  • Rhinoceros
  • Wart hog
  • Hippopotamus
  • Hawks, eagles, vultures, etc.; all species
  • Turkeys; all species except those normally domesticated
  • Monk parakeet (a.k.a. Quaker parakeet)
  • Cuckoos; all species
  • Owls; all species
  • Sky larks
  • Bulbuls; all species
  • Thrushes; all species of genus Turdus
  • White eyes; all species of genus Zosterops
  • Yellow hammers
  • Sparrows; all species of genus Passer except English sparrow
  • Cape weaver
  • Baya weaver
  • Queleas; all species
  • Blackbirds, grackles, etc.; all species of genera Molothrus, Quiscalus, Agelaius
  • Java sparrow (a.k.a. Java Rice Bird, Java Rice Finch)
  • Starlings, mynas, etc.; all species except European starling and Hill mynas
  • Crows, ravens, etc.; all species
  • Crocodiles, gavials, etc.; all species
  • Alligators and caimans; all species
  • Cobras, coral snakes, etc.; all species
  • Adders, vipers, etc.; all species
  • Pit vipers; all species
  • Venomous colubrid snakes; all species
  • Gila monsters and beaded lizards; all species
  • Giant and Marine toads
  • Banded tetra
  • Piranha; all species
  • Grass, Silver and Bighead carp
  • Air-breathing catfishes; all species
  • Parasitic catfishes; all species
  • Giant walking catfishes; all species
  • Snakeheads; all species of genera Ophicephalus and Channa
  • Fresh-water stingray; all species

Citation: Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division

HAWAII

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Hawaii.

The legal jargon:

§4-71-2 Definitions. As used in the chapter:

“Non-domestic animal” means any animal, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes and invertebrates, other than domestic dog (Canis familiaris), domestic cat (Felis catus), domestic horse (Equus caballus), domestic ass, burro, or donkey (Equus asinus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus) including the beefalo (3/8 bison and 5/8 domestic cattle), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), domestic goat (Capra hircus), domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica), domestic pot-bellied pig (Sus salvanis), domestic alpaca (Lama pacos), domestic llama (Lama glama), domesticated races of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), domesticated races of chicken (Gallus gallus), domesticated races of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), domesticated races of pigeons (Columba domestica and Columba livia), domesticated races of muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), domesticated races of greylag geese (Anser anser) and swan geese (Anser cygnoides), and domestic hybrids (crosses between two domestic animals). As used in this chapter, the term or word, “animal,” shall mean “non-domestic animal;”

SUBCHAPTER 2

NON-DOMESTIC ANIMAL INTRODUCTIONS

 §4-71-5 Notice of quarantine. The board finds that there exists serious danger to the agricultural, horticultural, and aquacultural industries, natural resources, and environment of Hawaii by the uncontrolled introduction of feral and other non-domestic animals.

 §4-71-6 Prohibited introductions. (a) The introduction into Hawaii of live animals or live non-domestic animals as defined in this chapter at any stage of development is prohibited except for those animals on the lists incorporated in §4-71-6.5 by permit, and except as provided by section 150A-6.2, HRS.

(b) The list of animals designated as prohibited entry pursuant to section 150A-6.2, HRS, dated November 28, 2006, and located at the end of this chapter is made a part of this section. No person shall introduce into Hawaii any animal from the list of prohibited animals.

 §4-71-6.1 Ad hoc panel for identification of prohibited hybrid animal. (a) The chairperson shall establish an ad hoc panel of no fewer than three members with applicable expertise in vertebrate biology to determine if an animal is a prohibited hybrid animal when the branch suspects that the lineage of the animal is not as stated by the owner or on other official documents.

(b) The ad hoc panel shall review all pertinent information including, but not limited to, expert consultations, health and pedigree certificates, owner’s statements, branch findings, or viewings of the animal, to determine lineage of a suspect prohibited hybrid animal.

© After its review and determination the ad hoc panel shall report its findings to the branch, and appropriate action shall be taken by the branch on the disposition of the suspect hybrid prohibited animal.

(d) In any contested case arising out of the identification of a suspected hybrid animal, the method of identification selected by the ad hoc panel shall not be overturned absent evidence of actual bias on the part of one or more of the ad hoc panel members or unless the method of identification lacks a scientific basis.

Citation: HAWAII ADMIN. RULES §4-71-2, §4-71-5, §4-71-6, §4-71-6.1

IDAHO

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Idaho.

The legal jargon:

25-236. POSSESSION, SALE, TRADE, BARTER, EXCHANGE AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS.

(1) No person shall possess, offer for sale, trade, barter, exchange or importation into the state of Idaho any fox, skunk or raccoon, except as provided in subsection (2) or (3) of this section.

(2)  Fur farms may possess or import any domestic fur-bearing animals with a certificate of veterinary inspection and domestic fur-bearing animals may be sold, traded, bartered or exchanged between fur farms in Idaho.

(3)  Public parks, zoos, museums, and educational institutions may possess or import the animals listed in subsection (1) of this section only if the entity possesses a permit from the department of agriculture and the imported animal is accompanied by a certificate of veterinary inspection. The department of agriculture may refuse to issue a permit if the department finds that the entity requesting the permit does not have physical facilities adequate to maintain the animal in health and safety and to prevent the escape of the animal from confinement. Public parks, zoos, museums, and educational institutions that possess a permit from the department of agriculture may sell, trade, barter or exchange any of the animals listed in subsection (1) of this section with any other entity that has a valid permit from the department of agriculture.

Citation: ID ST § 25-236

ILLINOIS

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Illinois.

Note:

  • A fur-bearing mammal breeder permit is required to own a fox.
  • However, a permit is not needed to own a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

The legal jargon:

Sec. 3.25. Any individual who, within the State of Illinois, holds, possesses or engages in the breeding or raising of live fur-bearing mammals, protected by this Act, except as provided in Sections 1.6 or 1.7, shall be a fur-bearing mammal breeder in the meaning of this Act. Before any individual shall hold, possess or engage in the breeding or raising of live fur-bearing mammals, he shall first procure a fur-bearing mammal breeder permit. Fur-bearing mammal breeder permits shall be issued by the Department. The annual fee for each fur-bearing mammal breeder permit shall be $25. All fur-bearing mammal breeder permits shall expire on March 31 of each year.

Holders of fur-bearing mammal breeder permits may hold, possess, engage in the breeding or raising, sell, or otherwise dispose of live fur-bearing mammals or their green hides, possessed thereunder, at any time of the year.

Fur-bearing mammal breeders shall keep a record for 2 years from the date of the acquisition, sale or other disposition of each live fur-bearing mammal or its green hide so raised or propagated, showing the date of such transaction, the name and address of the individual receiving or buying such live fur-bearing mammal or its green hide, and when requested to do so, shall furnish such individual with a certificate of purchase showing the number and kinds of live fur-bearing mammals or green hides so disposed of, the date of the transaction, the name and permit number of the breeder, and the name of the individual receiving, collecting, or buying such live fur-bearing mammals or green hides, and such other information as the Department may require. Such records and certificates of purchase shall be immediately presented to officers or authorized employees of the Department, any sheriff, deputy sheriff, or other peace officer when request is made for same. Failure to produce such records or certificates of purchase shall be prima facie evidence that such live fur-bearing mammals or green hides are contraband with the State of Illinois. The holder of a fur-bearing mammal breeder permit may exhibit fur-bearing mammals commercially.

Nothing in this Section shall be construed to give any such permittee authority to take fur-bearing mammals in their wild state contrary to other provisions of this Act, or to remove such permittee from responsibility for the observance of any Federal Laws, rules or regulations which may apply to such fur-bearing mammals.

Holders of fur-bearing mammal breeder permits may import fur-bearing mammals into the State of Illinois but may release the same only after health and disease prevention requirements set forth by the Director and other State agencies have been met and permission of the Director has been granted.

The breeding, raising and producing in captivity, and the marketing, by the producer, of mink (Mustela vison), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) or arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), as live animals, or as animal pelts or carcasses shall be deemed an agricultural pursuit, and all such animals so raised in captivity shall be deemed domestic animals, subject to all the laws of the State with reference to possession and ownership as are applicable at any time to domestic animals. All individuals engaged in the foregoing activities are fur farmers and engaged in farming for all statutory purposes. Such individuals are exempt from the fur-bearing mammal breeder permit requirements set forth in this Section if: (1) they are defined as farmers for Federal income tax purposes, and (2) at least 20 percent of their gross farm income as reported on Federal tax form Schedule F (Form 1040) for the previous year is generated from the sale of mink, red fox or arctic fox as live animals, animal pelts or carcasses.

No fur-bearing mammal breeder permits will be issued to hold, possess, or engage in the breeding and raising of striped skunks acquired after July 1, 1975, or coyotes acquired after July 1, 1978, except for coyotes that are held or possessed by a person who holds a hound running area permit under Section 3.26 of this Act. 

Citation: ILLINOIS WILDLIFE CODE CHAPTER 520 ILCS SECTION 5/3.25

INDIANA

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Indiana.

The legal jargon:

312 IAC 9-11-2 First permit to possess a wild animal

Authority: IC 14-22-26

Affected: IC 14-11-4; IC 14-22

Sec. 2. (a) This section governs the first permit under this rule to possess a particular wild animal.

(b) A person who wishes to possess a wild animal, described as Class I or Class II in this rule, must obtain a permit 

under this rule before the person takes possession of the animal.

© A person who wishes to possess a wild animal, described as Class III in this rule must satisfy IC 14-11-4 and obtain 

a permit under this rule before the person takes possession of the animal. In addition to any procedural requirements, a 

notice under this subsection must also describe the following:

(1) The species of the wild animal.

(2) Where the animal will be possessed.

(3) The type of enclosure that would be used.

(d) Within forty-five (45) days after the issuance of a permit, the permit holder must submit written verification from a 

licensed veterinarian that the animal appears to be:

(1) free of disease;

(2) appropriately immunized; and

(3) in good health;

to the division of fish and wildlife.

(e) An application must present a plan for the quick and safe recapture of the wild animal if the animal escapes or, if 

recapture is impracticable, for the destruction of the animal. After notification by the department of an intention to 

issue a permit, but before the permit is issued, the applicant must obtain the equipment needed to carry out the 

recapture and destruction plan. The nature and extent of the recapture plan and the equipment needed are dependent on 

the danger the escaped animal poses to:

(1) persons;

(2) domestic animals;

(3) livestock; and

(4) other wildlife;

in the vicinity of the escape.

(f) A permit holder who possesses a Class III wild animal must notify the department immediately after the discovery 

of any escape of the animal.

(g) A permit application must be:

(1) completed on a department form; and

(2) accompanied by a fee in the amount of ten dollars ($10).

(h) A conservation officer shall inspect the cages or enclosures after the application is received.

(i) An application must show the wild animal was lawfully acquired. A receipted invoice, bill of lading, or other 

evidence approved by the director shall accompany the application to establish compliance with this subsection.

312 IAC 9-11-7 Class II wild animals for which a permit is required

Authority: IC 14-22-26

Affected: IC 14-22

Sec. 7. (a) A permit is required under this rule for the following Class II wild animals:

(1) Beaver (Castor canadensis).

(2) Coyote (Castor latrans).

(3) Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).

(4) Red fox (Vulpes fulva).

(5) Mink (Mustela vison).

(6) Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).

(7) Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).

(8) Raccoon (Procyon lotor).

(9) Skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

(10) Weasel (Mustela frenata, Mustela nivalis, and Mustela rixosa).

(b) As used in this rule, “Class II wild animal” means a wild animal that, because of its nature, habits, or status, may pose a threat to human safety.

312 IAC 9-11-13 Confining, enclosing, and housing for particular wild animals

Authority: IC 14-22-26

Affected: IC 14-22

Sec. 13. (a) This section sets standards for:

(1) confining;

(2) enclosing; and

(3) housing;

particular kinds of wild animals that must be satisfied by a person licensed under this rule.

(f) Foxes must be provided with the following:

(1) A sheltered retreat and either:

(A) a den; or

(B) an elevated wood platform.

(2) Limbs.

(3) The cage floor shall have a three (3) foot barrier or apron around the inside of the cage. The barrier shall be 

constructed of one (1) inch by two (2) inch maximum mesh. The mesh shall be made from:

(A) nonrusting, galvanized welded steel; or

(B) an equivalent material.

(4) The:

(A) walls;

(B) roof; and

© floor;

of the cage shall be constructed of one (1) inch by two (2) inch maximum mesh.

Citation: 312 IAC 9-11-2, 312 IAC 9-11-7, 312 IAC 9-11-13

IOWA

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Iowa.

The legal jargon:

717F.1. Definitions

5. a. “Dangerous wild animal” means any of the following:

(1) A member of the family canidae of the order carnivora, including but not limited to wolves, coyotes, and jackals. However, a dangerous wild animal does not include a domestic dog.

(2) A member of the family hyaenidae of the order of carnivora, including but not limited to hyenas.

(3) A member of the family felidae of the order carnivora, including but not limited to lions, tigers, cougars, leopards, cheetahs, ocelots, and servals. However, a dangerous wild animal does not include a domestic cat.

(4) A member of the family ursidae of the order carnivora, including bears and pandas.

(5) A member of the family rhinocero tidae order perissodactyla, which is a rhinoceros.

(6) A member of the order proboscidea, which are any species of elephant.

(7) A member of the order of primates other than humans, and including the following families: callitrichiadae, cebidae, cercopithecidae, cheirogaleidae, daubentoniidae, galagonidae, hominidae, hylobatidae, indridae, lemuridae, loridae, megaladapidae, or tarsiidae. A member includes but is not limited to marmosets, tamarins, monkeys, lemurs, galagos, bushbabies, great apes, gibbons, lesser apes, indris, sifakas, and tarsiers.

(8) A member of the order crocodilia, including but not limited to alligators, caimans, crocodiles, and gharials.

(9) [Deleted by Acts 2012 (84 G.A.) ch. 1021, S.F. 2285, § 113.]

(10) A member of the order squamata which is any of the following:

(a) A member of the family varanidae, which are limited to water monitors and crocodile monitors.

(b) A member of the family atractaspidae, including but not limited to mole vipers and burrowing asps.

© A member of the family helodermatidae, including but not limited to beaded lizards and gila monsters.

(d) A member of the family elapidae, viperidae, crotalidae, atractaspidae, or hydrophidae which are venomous, including but not limited to cobras, mambas, coral snakes, kraits, adders, vipers, rattlesnakes, copperheads, pit vipers, keelbacks, cottonmouths, and sea snakes.

(e) A member of the superfamily henophidia, which are limited to reticulated pythons, anacondas, and African rock pythons.

(11) Swine which is a member of the species sus scrofa linnaeus, including but not limited to swine commonly known as Russian boar or European boar of either sex.

b. “Dangerous wild animal” includes an animal which is the offspring of an animal provided in paragraph “a”, and another animal provided in that paragraph or any other animal. It also includes animals which are the offspring of each subsequent generation. However, a dangerous wild animal does not include the offspring of a domestic dog and a wolf, or the offspring from each subsequent generation in which at least one parent is a domestic dog.

717F.3. Dangerous wild animals–prohibitions

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a person shall not do any of the following:

1. Own or possess a dangerous wild animal.

2. Cause or allow a dangerous wild animal owned by a person or in the person’s possession to breed.

3. Transport a dangerous wild animal into this state.

Citation: IA ST § 717F.1, IA ST § 717F.3

KANSAS

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Kansas.

The legal jargon:

INFORMATION ON RABIES CONTROL IN WILDLIFE ANIMALS

28-1-14. Rabies control in wildlife animals. (a) The possession or sale of skunks, raccoons, foxes and coyotes for keeping of these mammals as pets shall be prohibited.

(b) Removal of musk glands of skunks for purposes of attempted domestication shall be prohibited.

© Except as permitted by the secretary, attempts to immunize skunks, coyotes, raccoons, foxes, and other wildlife mammals known to be involved in the transmission of rabies shall be prohibited.

(d) Subsections (a) and (b) of this regulation shall not apply to bonafide zoological parks or research institutions.

Citation: KAR 28-1-14

KENTUCKY

 To put it simply: there is no simple answer.

Note:

  • While foxes are technically legal to possess in the state of Kentucky, they are also illegal to import into the state. And, unfortunately, there are no fox breeders in Kentucky, so owning a fox is impossible.
  • However, it may be possible to import and own a bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis).

The legal jargon:

Section 6. Prohibited Species. (1) Except as specified in Section 7 of this administrative regulation, a person shall not import, transport, or possess:

(a) Alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii);

(b) Black bear (Ursus americanus);

© Copperbelly water snake (Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta);

(d) Cougar or mountain lion (Felis concolor);

(e) Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo); or

(f) Wolf (Canis lupus).

(2) The following species shall not be imported into or transported through Kentucky, except as specified in Section 7 of this administrative regulation:

(a) Coyotes (Canis latrans);

(b) Foxes (Vulpes spp.; Alopex lagopus; Urocyon cinereoargenteus);

© Raccoons (Procyon lotor); or

(d) Skunks (Mephitis spp.; Spilogale putorius; Conepatus leuconotus).

Citation: 301 KAR 2:081, SECTION 6

LOUISIANA

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Louisiana.

Note:

  • A nongame quadruped exhibitor or breeder license is required to own a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) or gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in Louisiana.
  • Exotic, nonnative foxes are not regulated, so it might be possible to own one without a license.

The legal jargon:

§8.  Definitions

(89)  "Nongame quadruped" means alligators, beavers, bobcats, coyotes, gray foxes, minks, muskrats, nutrias, opossums, otters, raccoons, red foxes, skunks, and other wild quadrupeds valuable for their skins or furs.

§262.  Nongame quadrupeds; breeding, propagation, and exhibition

A.  Whoever desires to engage in the business of raising and/or exhibiting imported or native nongame quadrupeds shall apply to the department for a license to do so.  If it appears that the application is made in good faith, upon a payment of ten dollars, a nongame quadruped exhibitor license may be issued permitting the applicant to breed and/or exhibit such animals provided he meets rules and regulations of the department.  

B.  Whoever desires to engage in the business of raising, exhibiting, and selling imported or native nongame quadrupeds or collecting and selling wild alligator eggs shall apply to the department for a license to do so.  If it appears that the application is made in good faith, upon payment of twenty-five dollars, a nongame quadruped breeder license may be issued permitting the applicant to breed, propagate, exhibit, and sell such animals alive or sell their parts; and to kill and transport them and sell their pelts, skins, or carcasses as hereinafter provided in this Section.  

C.  Nongame quadruped breeder and exhibitor licenses shall expire on the thirty-first of December of each year.  On or before the first of December of each year, every licensee shall apply for a renewal of his exhibitor or breeder license.  In conjunction with this application, or without application if not renewing the license, the licensee shall provide a report including all information as specified by the department.  

D.  Nongame quadrupeds raised on such licensed breeding farms may be sold alive or taken for their pelts, skins, or for food according to rules and regulations of the commission.  All skins shall be tagged according to rules and regulations of the commission.  The severance tax as fixed by law shall be paid before the raw pelts or alligator skins are shipped out of state, or tanned within the state, and a written affidavit as to the number and kinds shipped or tanned shall be furnished to the department as specified.  

E.  All nongame quadruped carcasses or parts intended for sale shall be shipped, transported, sold, or offered for sale according to commission regulations.  

F.  The department may issue a permit to a duly licensed breeder to take such wild animals as needed for use as breeding stock.  The licensed breeder shall apply in writing, stating where the animals are to be taken, at what time, and in what numbers.  

G.  Whoever under the authority of this Section has in his lawful possession any such animal or parts thereof on such posted or fenced breeding area shall have a property right therein and shall be the owner thereof.  Whoever enters the nongame quadruped farm or catches, takes, or molests such animals when the area has been posted or fenced according to law shall be punished as though the animals were ordinary domestic animals and subject to the property rights of the state of Louisiana.

H.  The department may revoke the license of any person violating the provisions of this Section.  

I.  All other rules and regulations pertaining to the breeding, propagation, and sale of nongame quadrupeds shall be determined solely by the commission.  

J.  Violation of this Section constitutes a class three violation.  

Citation: LA RS 56:8 & 56:262

MAINE

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Maine.

The legal jargon:

7.00            Permit Required

A permit is required to take alive, possess or import any native or exotic wildlife for the following purposes pursuant to Title 12 MRSA Section 12152: Wildlife Exhibit, including any commercial display of wildlife; General Wildlife Possession, including propagation or personal use of wildlife; Wildlife Rehabilitation. Wildlife Importation, pursuant to 12 MRSA Section 12155; and Scientific Collection pursuant to 12 MRSA Section 12704.

 A person may not import a wolf hybrid into the State without first obtaining a Wildlife Importation Permit from the Department. A person may not keep a wolf hybrid in the State unless that person holds a Wildlife Possession Permit issued by the Department under Title 12 Section 12152, or the animal is licensed according to Title 7, Section 3921-B §2. 

Wolf Hybrid is defined as a mammal that is the off spring of a species of wild canid or wild canid hybrid. “Wolf hybrid” includes a mammal that is represented by its owner or keeper to be a cross between a domestic dog (Canis familiaris) and a wild canid or wild canid hybrid, and includes without limitation, any mammal that is represented by its owner or keeper to be a wolf hybrid, coyote hybrid, coy dog or any other wild canid hybrid.

7.08            Conditions and Restrictions

1. Species with Special Needs or Considerations: The Commissioner may set special conditions on a permit to mitigate potential impacts on, or from, wildlife having special needs and to ensure the welfare of such wildlife. The Commissioner may seek the advise of experts on the species involved to provide for such special needs and to ensure the welfare of the wildlife.

2. Federal Permit Requirements: If applicable, proof must be furnished of a valid federal wildlife possession or importation permit, and compliance with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

3. Display of Permit: All permits issued for the possession of wildlife shall be made available for inspection by Department representatives and animal welfare agents.

4. Security and Shelter: Wildlife held in captivity must be contained, controlled, and sheltered in such a way as to protect it, and to protect property of others and the public health and safety.

5. Emergency Plan: A written Emergency Plan shall be submitted with the application for use in the event of occurrences such as: (1) severe damage to enclosures due to fire, wind, or floods; (2) animals attacking and /or injuring humans, other animals or property; and (3) the escape of any animal in captivity. The plan shall include an updated list of dangerous wildlife in captivity, the availability of capture equipment and weapons with specific instructions as to the precise circumstances under which dangerous wildlife are to be destroyed. Such plan shall be available and produced at the request of a law enforcement officer, firefighter, Department representative or Animal Control Officer. Local police or the local game warden shall be immediately notified of the escape of a dangerous animal.

6. Costs of recovery or handling. The permittee shall be responsible for all costs incurred by the State resulting from the escape or release of wildlife, or for the necessary confiscation of wildlife from the premises of the permittee, or as the result of the revocation of the possession permit. The Commissioner may require the posting of a bond or other financial security for this purpose.

7. Health and Comfort: (a) No animal shall be chained or otherwise tethered to a stake , post, tree, building or any other anchorage at any time except for training or other controlled activities, for medical treatment or grooming of such animals or as otherwise provided herein. (b) All animals held in outdoor enclosures shall be provided with adequate shelter from inclement weather and direct sunlight. Each cage or enclosure shall have shelter sufficient to simultaneously protect all animals contained therein. © All animals shall be provided with quarters that maintain a temperature meeting the biological needs of the animal. (d) Handling of animals shall be done as expeditiously and carefully as possible, in such a way as to avoid unnecessary discomfort, behavioral stress, or physical harm to the animal.. All wildlife shall be provided with appropriate veterinary care to include care for injuries and for the control of contagious, parasitic, and nutritional diseases.

8. Sanitation: All cages and enclosures shall be kept in a sanitary condition. Regular cleaning schedules shall be maintained. Trash, spilled food and fecal materials shall be removed at least once each day and more often if necessary. Cages may not be stacked in such a way that excrement may enter lower enclosures.

9. Food and Water: a.) An adequate supply of potable water shall be available in cages and enclosures for drinking, washing or other purposes necessary to the species being contained. b.) Regular feeding schedules shall be maintained; the rations supplied shall be adequate, nutritious, and so far as possible consistent with the food which is ordinarily eaten by such animals in the wild. Food shall be sufficient to maintain proper strength and healthy appearance. c.) Areas used for the preparation and storage of food shall be sufficiently clean to prevent contamination by pathogens or harmful substances. Meat, fish and fresh fruits and vegetables to be fed to animals shall be properly refrigerated to prevent spoilage. d.) Food for animals shall be stored in such a way as to prevent damage of food from weather, rodents, insects and animals.

10. Cage Requirements

a. The following are minimum caging requirements for animals kept in captivity. Any permittee possessing or wishing to obtain an animal not included below shall contact the Commissioner of the Department who will determine an appropriate cage size and holding requirements. The permittee shall comply with all such requirements set by the Commissioner. 

b. All cages or enclosures shall be constructed in compliance with this Chapter.

Carnivores and certain omnivores with similar requirements

17. Foxes, jackals, and others of similar size and habits

a. Number or size - 1 pair.

b. Cage size - 8’ long x 4’ wide x 6’ high.

c. Accessories - 1 shelf 18" wide x 3’ high x 4’ long is required. A den or nest box area is also required.

Citation: 9-137 CMR CH. 7 § 7.00, 7.08

MARYLAND

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Maryland.

The legal jargon:

§ 10-621. Import, offer, or transfer of dangerous animal

Prohibited

(b) A person may not import into the State, offer for sale, trade, barter, possess, breed, or exchange a live:

(1) fox, skunk, raccoon, or bear;

(2) caiman, alligator, or crocodile;

(3) member of the cat family other than the domestic cat;

(4) hybrid of a member of the cat family and a domestic cat if the hybrid weighs over 30 pounds;

(5) member of the dog family other than the domestic dog;

(6) hybrid of a member of the dog family and a domestic dog;

(7) nonhuman primate, including a lemur, monkey, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, marmoset, loris, or tamarin; or

(8) poisonous snake in the family groups of Hydrophidae, Elapidae, Viperidae, or Crotolidae.

Citation: MD CRIM LAW § 10-621

MASSACHUSETTS

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Massachusetts.

Note:

  • Licenses are not issued to allow the keeping of wild animals as pets.

The legal jargon:

(3) Licenses. Unless otherwise provided by law, it is unlawful for any person to possess maintain, propagate or cultivate, sell or offer to sell any animal without having a valid license issued to them by the Director in one of five classes.

(a) A class 4 propagator’s license authorizes a person to possess, maintain, propagate, buy, sell or otherwise lawfully dispose of specified birds, mammals, reptiles or amphibians. A Class 4 license may, in addition and as a condition of the license, allow the liberation and recapture of bobwhite quail or ring-necked pheasant for the sole purpose of training dogs.

(b) A class 5 public stocking license (including a Class 5 special propagator’s license) authorizes any individual, club or association to possess, maintain and propagate birds or mammals for the sole purpose of liberation into covers open for public hunting. A Class 5 public stocking license may be issued as a Letter Permit in accordance with M.G.L. c. 131, § 4(2) and 321 CMR 2.02 but shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 321 CMR 2.12.

© A class 6 dealer’s license authorizes a person to possess or maintain for food purposes, and to purchase, sell, offer to sell, barter, offer to barter, or conduct commercial transactions of any nature, fish, birds, or mammals which have been lawfully imported into Massachusetts or lawfully propagated within Massachusetts, provided that dealing in fish shall be in accordance with 321 CMR 4.09. A class 6 dealer’s license issued for purposes other than human food shall be issued at the discretion of the director, and the director shall not issue such permit unless, in his discretion, such permit is in the public interest and is not detrimental to the fish and wildlife resources of Massachusetts or the populations of the fish and wildlife proposed for the license, wherever found. When a fish, bird, or mammal proposed for licensing closely resembles a fish, bird, or mammal not so proposed, or for which a license may not be issued, or which derives from a source not authorized pursuant to 321 CMR 2.12(16)(a), the director may consider such similarity of appearance as constituting an adverse or detrimental effect on such protected or non-licensed fish, birds, and mammals, or on the enforcement of laws relating to the conservation and management of the same, and may deny the license on such basis.

(d) A class 7 possessor’s license authorizes a person to possess and maintain, but not to propagate, sell or barter, a non-exempt bird or mammal in accordance with 321 CMR 2.12(10)(l); or a non-exempt mammal for the sole purpose of training dogs, when such mammal was lawfully possessed and held under a Class 7 license prior to December 31, 1994; or for the possession of a non-exempt reptile or amphibian. After December 31, 1994, no initial Class 7 license may be issued for the purpose of possessing a non-exempt mammal for the purpose of training dogs. A Class 7 license may be issued as a Letter Permit in accordance with M.G.L. c. 131, § 4(2) and 321 CMR 2.02 but shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 321 CMR 2.12.

(e) A dog training license (including a Class 8 quail license) authorizes a person to possess no more than 25 quail, six ring-necked pheasant, and two chukar partridge to liberate and recapture for the sole purpose of training dogs.

(9) Denials. Applications for a license provided for in 321 CMR 2.12(3), including both initial applications and renewals, shall, unless otherwise provided, be denied when:

(a) the application is for a license to possess, maintain, propagate or cultivate animals as pets except as otherwise provided for in 321 CMR 2.12(10)(h) and (10)(i);

(10) Issuance. A Class 4 license may be issued only to applicants who substantially document that the intended possession, maintenance or propagation is for:

(h) the aviculture of non-exempt birds, including federally threatened and endangered species as authorized by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, that are documented to be the product of captive propagation or that were legally held prior to the approval of 321 CMR 2.12 and are members of the following taxonomic groups:Ciconiiformes (e.g., flamingo), Anseriformes (e.g., ducks, geese, swans), Galliformes (e.g., pheasant, quail, grouse),Gruiformes (e.g., cranes, coots), Columbiformes (e.g., pigeons, doves), Psittaciformes (e.g., parrots), Piciformes(e.g., toucans), Passeriformes (e.g., songbirds). The foregoing shall not include the Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) or the following potential pest species: Pink Starling (Sturnus roseus), Red-billed Dioch including the Black-fronted and Sudan Diochs (Quelea quelea), and Red-whiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus).

(i) the propagation of non-exempt reptiles, including federally endangered and threatened species as authorized by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, that are documented to be the product of captive propagation or that were lawfully held prior to the approval of 321 CMR 2.12 on May 8, 1986, and are members of the taxonomic groups which include turtles and lizards, except venomous lizards in the genus Heloderma; 

Citation: MASS. REGS. CODE tit. 321, §2.12

MICHIGAN

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Michigan

Note:

  • A permit to hold wildlife in captivity is now required for all red, silver and cross foxes (Vulpes vulpes), as well as any color phases that “closely resemble” said colors.
  • “Closely resemble” most likely includes: pearl, pearl cross, calico, et cetera. The DNR should be contacted in regards to permits.
  • There is no grandfather, meaning anyone who owns a red, silver, cross or closely resembling color must apply for a permit.
  • Excluding red, silver and cross foxes (Vulpes vulpes), all other colors are considered non-native and are recognized as domestic animals.
  • The only other native fox that requires a permit to hold wildlife in captivity is the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).
  • Foxes that are not native to the state are considered exotic and do not require a permit to hold wildlife in captivity. This includes arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis), fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda), bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis), et cetera.

The legal jargon:

THE CAPTIVE WILD ANIMAL ORDER

Under the authority of section 42710, Act 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, as amended, being section 324.42710 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, the Director of the Department of Natural Resources ordered that effective March 11, 2005, the following regulations shall read as follows:

20.1 Short title.

Sec. 20.1. This order shall be known and may be cited as “the captive wild animal order.”

20.2 Meanings of words and phrases.

Sec. 20.2. For the purposes of this order, words and phrases defined in part 427, breeders and dealers, of the natural resources and environmental protection act, Act No. 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, being sections 324.42701 to 324.42714 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those sections. When used in this order, “permit to hold wildlife in captivity” or “permit” shall mean a game breeders license.

20.3 Permits.

Sec. 20.3. (1) Except as provided by section 20.4, only a person who has submitted an application to the wildlife division permit specialist for a permit to hold wildlife in captivity, being form PR 1350, in accordance with the instructions on that form, and who possesses a valid permit to hold wildlife in captivity shall be considered, for the purposes of subsection 42709(2) of part 427, breeders and dealers, of the natural resources and environmental protection act, Act No. 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, being subsection 324.42709(2) of the Michigan Compiled Laws, “persons holding permits authorizing the possession of the game” or “licensed game breeders.” A person possessing or desiring to possess migratory birds, such as ducks or geese, shall comply with all federal regulations and permit rules in addition to state of Michigan regulations. This includes the physical marking of waterfowl by removal of the hind toe on the right foot of each bird before it reaches the age of 4 weeks or by other federally approved marking methods.

(2) A separate permit to hold wildlife in captivity is required for each separate premises although operated and owned by the same person or entity.

(3) Except as otherwise provided by this order, when a permittee secures additional numbers of animals for species already listed on the permit, the permittee shall report the additional animals on the next monthly inventory report, being form PR 1350‑2, and shall provide the minimum space requirements for the total number of animals of that species.

(4) If any information on an approved permit to hold wildlife in captivity is no longer current, an application to amend the permit must be submitted to the wildlife division permit specialist in accordance with the instructions on that form.

(5) A permit must specifically list each species held, or to be held. Before a permittee may possess a species not listed on their permit, the permittee must make application to the wildlife division permit specialist and obtain an approved amended permit to hold wildlife in captivity specifically listing the species to be acquired, except that a permittee shall be exempt from the requirement of specifically listing each species of duck held, or to be held, and from the requirement of amending a permit to include each species of duck to be acquired.

20.4 Permit requirement exemptions.

Sec. 20.4. (1) A person purchasing and removing the following live animals from a licensed premises may possess the animals without a permit provided the person does not propagate or sell the animals and provided the animals are properly identified as prescribed by section 20.9:

(a) Pheasants if they are 12 or fewer in number.

(b) Quail if they are 12 or fewer in number.

© Hungarian partridge if they are 12 or fewer in number.

(2) A permit to hold wildlife in captivity is not required for a person to possess pheasants, bobwhite quail, or Hungarian partridge legally acquired for the purpose of release to the wild or personal consumption, provided that a game bird release permit is obtained before, or at the same time as, the birds or their eggs are acquired, and the birds and their eggs are disposed of within 6 months of the date upon which the game bird release permit was issued.

(3) A permit to hold wildlife in captivity is not required for a person to possess game birds of the number and species authorized for release on a field dog trial permit issued by the department of natural resources.

(4) A permit to hold wildlife in captivity is not required for a person to possess game birds of the number and species authorized by a game bird hunting preserve license issued by the department of natural resources.

(5) A permit to hold wildlife in captivity is not required for a person receiving animals or eggs which are being shipped directly out of the state of Michigan.

(6) A permit to hold wildlife in captivity is not required for a person to possess raptors of the number and species authorized by a falconry permit issued by the department of natural resources and the United States fish and wildlife service.

(7) A permit to hold wildlife in captivity is not required for a person to possess cervidae species as defined by the privately owned cervidae producers marketing act, 2000 PA 190, being MCL 287.951 to 287.969.

20.5 Enclosures and sanitation; mute swan requirements.

Sec. 20.5. (1) Except as provided by subsection (2), animals held in captivity shall be confined to the licensed premises at all times. Animals shall not be chained or otherwise tethered to stakes, posts, trees, buildings, or other anchorage. Each animal shall be provided with an enclosure which meets the requirements of section 20.6, and shall be provided with rainproof dens, nest boxes, shelters, perches, and bedding as required for the comfort of the species held in captivity and to protect them against inclement weather or extreme heat. Animals in captivity shall be handled in a sanitary and humane manner and kept free as far as practicable from parasites, sickness, or disease. Permittees shall provide an enclosure of such strength and type of construction that it is impossible for the animals to escape, and shall keep all fences and enclosures properly repaired.

(2) A person may transport an animal held under permit in a temporary cage or other suitable means of confinement directly to and from a facility, for the following reasons only:

(a) Veterinary treatment of the animal.

(b) Sale, or transfer of ownership of the animal.

© Exhibition of mammals to the public, provided a United States department of agriculture exhibition license, specifically authorizing this activity, is possessed.

(d) Use of fox or raccoons in department authorized field dog trials, provided the fox or raccoons are not dragged, led on a leash, submerged in water, or allowed to come into contact with dogs.

(3) Mute swans possessed under permit and hatched on or after August 15, 1993, shall have 1 wing pinioned within 5 days of hatching.

(4) Mute swans possessed under permit and hatched prior to August 15, 1993, shall be marked with a numbered metal leg band supplied by the department. Records of band numbers, birds banded, birds sold or transferred to another party, and other information shall be submitted to the department according to instructions and on forms supplied by the department.

20.6 Enclosure size and amenities, requirements.

Sec. 20.6. The minimum enclosure size and required amenities for the species designated in this section shall be as follows, except that newborn mammals may remain with their parents until weaned:

Enclosure size; badger, bobcat, fox, and raccoon.

(1) Badger, bobcat, fox, or raccoon:

(a) Single animal: 8 feet long by 6 feet wide by 6 feet high.

(b) For each additional animal, increase horizontal cage size by 24 square feet.

© Clawing logs and a den site 2 feet by 2 feet by 2 feet high required for each animal.

(d) A climbing tree with 3 or more 4-inch diameter branches shall be available for each raccoon or bobcat. A 14-inch by 36-inch protected shelf area shall be provided for each animal. Bobcat or raccoon platforms shall be at least 3 feet above the floor; fox and badger platforms shall be 1 foot above the floor.

SPECIES COVERED

A Permit to Hold Wildlife in Captivity is required to possess, propagate, sell, transport, or make any other commercial or personal use of live animals defined as game or protected in Michigan. In addition, a Permit to Hold Wildlife in Captivity is required for the possession of live animals whichclosely resemble game or protected species and can reasonably be confused with game or protected species as determined by the Department. 

A Permit to Hold Wildlife in Captivity is required for the possession of the following game and protected animals: badger, beaver, bobcat, bobwhite quail, brant, common moorhen, coot, coyote, crow, fisher, hare, Hungarian partridge, mink, muskrat, opossum, otter, rabbit, raccoon, skunk, snipe, sora rail, squirrel, weasel, wild turkey, woodchuck, woodcock, Virginia rail, and all other native wild species of birds not defined as game.

A Permit to Hold Wildlife in Captivity is also required for the possession of the species listed within the following groups: ducks (all North American species except properly marked mallards), fox (red, gray, and silver), geese (all North American species), Grouse (ruffed and sharp-tailed), pheasants (ring-necked, Sichuan, and look-a-likes from the genus Phasianus per Types of Pheasants Regulated), swans (mute and tundra).

324.43101 Foxes in captivity as domestic animals; protection; construction of part.

Sec. 43101.

Silver, silver-black, black, and cross foxes, which of their nature, in the absence of efforts for their domestication, were known as wild, which are brought into or born in captivity upon a farm or ranch for the purpose of cultivating or pelting their furs, together with their offspring and increase, are domestic animals for the purpose of any statute or law relating generally to domestic animals, other than dogs and cats or other pets, or relating to farming or to animal husbandry or to the encouragement of agriculture, unless any such statute or law is impossible to apply to such fur-bearing animals. Such fur-bearing animals, together with their offspring and increase, are the subjects of ownership, lien, and all other property rights, in the same manner as purely domestic animals, in whatever situation, location, or condition the fur-bearing animals may be, and regardless of whether they remain in or escape from captivity. Such fur-bearing animals shall receive the same protection of law as, and in the same way and to the same extent are the subject of trespass or larceny as, other personal property. This part shall not be construed to include silver, silver-black, black, and cross foxes within the definition of livestock, or give any person any right to recovery for damage or destruction of the animal under the dog law of 1919, Act No. 339 of the Public Acts of 1919, being sections 287.261 to 287.290 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

Additional:

Dear Mr. Creagh,

About two and a half years ago, I emailed the DNR’s permit specialist, Casey Reitz, inquiring about nonnative foxes in the state. At the time, she told me that silver foxes were not native, and did not require a permit to hold wildlife in captivity. I have a copy of this email.

However, I just noticed that the permit to hold wildlife in captivity has been updated on 3/12/14, and it now included silver foxes.

And so, my question is this: are silver foxes that were purchased before 2013/2014/the updated circular exempt from this new change and grandfathered in? Because a permit was not required by law until now.

I’m emailing you about this matter instead of Casey Reitz, since you are the Director and I would prefer to have word from you.

Thank you,

J.P.

Hi J.P.,

Thank you for contacting the Michigan Department of Natural Resources Executive Division.  Your email was sent to the Wildlife Division for a response.  In the attached section of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act 451 of 1994, it defines which animals are considered to be game species in Michigan.  Regarding fox, the language simply says “fox” and does not mention color phases. Statute does not specify which species of fox are regulated.  If the fox looks like a native fox then it needs a permit. If it is a species that could be closely confused with a native species, then it needs a permit.

Silver fox is a naturally occurring color phase of the native red fox. Laws were enacted to prevent people from taking wildlife out of the wild to keep them in private ownership for varying reasons. Over time selective breeding has created, “designer foxes.” Many of these new phases do not look like native foxes. What we are attempting to do now is to make practical sense out of this changing situation. Therefore, we are handling privately-owned foxes that look like their wild counterparts in accordance with the original intent of the law. Fox phases that do not look like wild foxes are not treated the same as phases that look wild because they do not occur naturally in the wild.

Even though silver fox are required to have a permit to hold wildlife in captivity if being kept as a pet they are however exempt by law from the requirement if they are used for fur farming.

Your specific question is “are silver foxes that were purchased before 2013/2014/the updated circular exempt from this new change and grandfathered in? Because a permit was not required by law until now.” Based on what I outlined above, you would not be exempt from the change and will need to apply for a permit. The application and related information is attached for your convenience.

We apologize for the confusion this may have caused.

 Sincerely, 

 Shannon J. Hanna

Policy & Regulations Unit Mgr

DNR, Wildlife Division

PO BOX 30444

Lansing, MI 48909-3744

517-284-6188

[email protected]

Citation: THE CAPTIVE WILD ANIMAL ORDER; PERMITS TO HOLD WILDLIFE IN CAPTIVITY; MI ST 324.43101

MINNESOTA

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Minnesota.

Note:

  • Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) are protected wild animals in the state of Minnesota. Protected wild animals may not be possessed without a license, and there are no licenses for pet purposes, hobby purposes, or personal possession.
  • The only license offered by the DNR is the Game and Fur Farm license, which is a commercial license. With this license, the licensee must propagate the animals and make a profit/have a legitimate business. According to statutory law, the license will only be granted “if the commissioner finds the application is made in good faith with intention to actually carry on the business described in the application…”
  • However, it might be possible to own an exotic, nonnative fox, such as the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), swift fox (Vulpes velox) or fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

The legal jargon:

Chapter 97A. Game and Fish

97A.015 DEFINITIONS.

Subd. 37. Predator. “Predator” means a wolf, coyote, fox, lynx, or bobcat.

Subd. 39. Protected wild animals. “Protected wild animals” are the following wild animals: big game, small game, game fish, rough fish, minnows, leeches, alewives, ciscoes, chubs, and lake whitefish, and the subfamily Coregoninae, rainbow smelt, frogs, turtles, clams, mussels, gray wolf, mourning doves, and wild animals that are protected by a restriction in the time or manner of taking, other than a restrictionin the use of artificial lights, poison, or motor vehicles.

Subd. 45. Small game. “Small game” means game birds, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, cottontail rabbit, snowshoe hare, jack rabbit, raccoon, lynx, bobcat, wolf, red fox and gray fox, fisher, pine marten, opossum, badger, cougar, wolverine, muskrat, mink, otter, and beaver.

97A.501 WILD ANIMALS: GENERAL RESTRICTIONS.

Subdivision 1. General restrictions. A person may not take, buy, sell, transport, or possess a protected wild animal unless allowed by the game and fish laws. The ownership of all wild animals is in the state, unless the wild animal has been lawfully acquired under the game and fish laws. The ownership of a wild animal that is lawfully acquired reverts to the state if a law relating to sale, transportation, or possession of the wild animal is violated.

Subd. 2. Endangered species. A person may not take, import, transport, or sell an endangered species of wild animal, or sell, or possess with intent to sell an article made from the parts of a wild animal, except as provided in section 84.0895.

Subd. 3. Contraceptive chemicals. (a) A person may not administer contraceptive chemicals to noncaptive wild animals without a permit issued by the commissioner. (b) The commissioner shall adopt rules establishing standards and guidelines for the administration of contraceptive chemicals to noncaptive wild animals. The rules may specify chemical delivery methods and devices and monitoring requirements.

97A.405 LICENSE REQUIREMENTS. Subdivision 1. Protected wild animals. Unless allowed under the game and fish laws, a person may not take, buy, sell, transport, or possess protected wild animals of this state without a license.

Citation: MN ST 97A.011-552

MISSISSIPPI

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Mississippi.

Note:

  • An entry permit is required to import a fox into Mississippi.

The legal jargon:

§ 49-8-5. Classification of inherently dangerous animals

The following wild animals are classed as animals inherently dangerous to humans:

(a) Order Primates:

(i) Family Pongidae (gibbons, orangutan, chimpanzees, siamangs and gorillas) – all species;

(ii) Family Cercopithecidae:

A. Genus Macaca (macaques) – all species;

B. Genus Papio (mandrills, drills and baboons) – all species;

C. Theropithecus Gelada (Gelada baboon);

(b) Order Carnivora:

(i) Family Canidae:

A. Genus Canis (wolves, jackals and dingos; all species, including crosses between wolves and domestic animals);

B. Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf);

C. Cuon alpinus (red dog);

D. Lycaon pictus (African hunting dog);

(ii) Family Ursidae (bears) – all species;

(iii) Family Mustelidae – Gulo gulo (wolverine);

(iv) Family Hyaenidae (hyenas) – all species;

(v) Family Felidae:

A. Genus Leo or Panthera or Neofelis (lions, tigers, jaguars and leopards) – all species;

B. Unica unica (snow leopard);

C. Acinonyx jubatus (cheetah);

D. Felis concolor (cougar) – all subspecies;

© Order Proboscidae: Family Elephantidae (elephants) – all species;

(d) Order Perissodactyla: Family Rhinocerotidae (rhinoceroses) – all species;

(e) Order Artiodactyla:

(ii) Family Hippopotamidae – Hippopotamus amphibius (hippopotamus);

(ii) Family Bovidae: Syncerus caffer (African buffalo).

§ 49-8-7. Prohibited possession

(1)(a) It is unlawful for a person to import, transfer, sell, purchase or possess any wild animal classified inherently dangerous by law or regulation unless that person holds a permit under paragraph (b) or is exempted under paragraph ©.

(b)(i) Any person who possesses a wild animal on May 1, 1997, may receive a fee-exempt temporary permit for that animal if the person applies by July 1, 1997. The temporary permit shall be valid until such time as the department notifies the person of the adoption of the regulations for wild animals and of the date the person must apply for an annual permit. After notification, the person shall apply for an annual permit.

(ii) A person must obtain a permit before that person takes possession of a wild animal. The applicant must comply with all the requirements of this chapter and the regulations promulgated by the commission to obtain the permit. Prior to the issuance of a permit, the applicant must provide proof of liability insurance in the amount of One Hundred Thousand Dollars ($100,000.00) for each wild animal up to a maximum of One Million Dollars ($1,000,000.00). An applicant shall have the burden of proving that any wild animals subject to this chapter are or will be imported, transferred, sold, purchased or possessed in compliance with this chapter and regulations.

© Public zoos, university research facilities, governmental agencies, transient circuses and rehabilitation and sanctuary facilities may be exempted from having a permit if the exemption is approved by the commission.

(d) Any permit issued under this chapter shall be valid for one (1) year and only for the species specified. A permit is required for each wild animal possessed. A permit for a female wild animal shall cover her progeny only while her progeny are physically dependant upon her or until her progeny are three (3) months old, whichever period is longer.

(2)(a) It is unlawful for any person to sell, transfer, deliver or give a wild animal classified as inherently dangerous to any other person unless the other person holds a permit for the wild animal or is exempt from holding a permit.

(b) Owners of unpermitted wild animals who do not qualify for a permit to possess the wild animal shall dispose of the wild animal according to law or regulation within thirty (30) days of notification by the department. Each day of possession of the unpermitted wild animal after the thirty-day period constitutes a separate violation.

General

1. Health Certificate Requirements - Health Certificates are required on all animals except livestock consigned to Federal approved slaughter establishments.

2. Relation to Federal Requirements - Livestock imports are to meet Mississippi and Federal interstate requirements, a health certificate, permit and/or waybill shall accompany the shipment as stipulated. No animal, including poultry, exotic or pet birds, or any species affected with, or recently exposed to any infectious, contagious or communicable disease, or that originated from a quarantined herd or area, shall be shipped or in any manner transported or moved into the State of Mississippi, except those animals affected with such diseases which are approved for interstate shipment by United States Department of Agriculture, APHIS, Veterinary Services, except for immediate slaughter.

3. Permits - A. Requests for permits shall be directed to the Mississippi State Veterinarian. All international imports of animals require prior entry permit. The following information is required to secure the permit:

  1. Complete name and mailing addresses of consignor and consignee;
  2. Number, breed and sex of animals;
  3. Purpose of shipment;
  4. Results of required testing (species dependant).
4. Duties of Carriers -

A. Owners and operators of private and common carriers, trucks and other conveyances are forbidden to move any livestock into, or through this state except in compliance with provisions set forth in these regulations.

B. All railway cars, trucks, and other conveyances used for the transportation of livestock and poultry shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.

C. Any carrier failing to comply with any of the provisions of this regulation, or interfering with any duly appointed representative of the Mississippi Board of Animal Health or USDA in the discharge of his duty, or having discharged of his duties, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished as authorized in Sections 69-15-9, 69-15-111, and 69-15-331 of the Mississippi Code, Annotated. (et. seq. 1972)

5. Health Certificates -

A. Licensed graduate accredited Veterinarians, or Veterinarians regularly employed by the state of origin, or Veterinary Services division of APHIS, USDA are authorized to inspect and issue official health certificates on livestock entering Mississippi.

B. All livestock entering Mississippi must be accompanied by an official health certificate, except livestock consigned to slaughtering establishments under State or Federal supervision accompanied by a USDA permit (VS Form 1-27), waybills, bills of lading or certificate of ownership. All tested cattle entering on a health certificate, other than cattle to slaughter, must be individually identified.

Citation: MISS. CODE ANN. §49-8-5 and MISS. CODE ANN. §49-8-7; Mississippi Board of Animal Health

MISSOURI

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Missouri.

Note:

  • A Wildlife Hobby permit is required for personal use, while a Class I Wildlife Breeder permit is required for breeding.
  • Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) must be kept outside in a kennel and are not allowed inside “within a residence or inhabited dwelling.”

The legal jargon:

3 CSR 10-9.105 General Provisions

PURPOSE: This rule establishes general provisions for the chapter, to be consistent with the format of other chapters. 

(1) Any person holding wildlife in captivity in any manner shall have in his/her possession the prescribed permit or evidence of exemption. Renewal of permits is conditioned on compliance with provisions of this Code.

(2) Confined wildlife held under permit within the provision of this chapter shall include only those species listed on the following Approved Confined Wildlife Species List:

Species Code No. - Common Name - Scientific Name

Class I Wildlife Breeders

Mammals

                               Fox, Gray / Urocyon cinereoargenteus

                               Fox, Red / Vulpes vulpes

Wildlife Hobby

                               Fox, Gray / Urocyon cinereoargenteus

                               Fox, Red / Vulpes vulpes

3 CSR 10-9.220 Wildlife Confinement Standards

PURPOSE: This rule establishes standards to be followed by those holding wildlife in captivity to assure the animals are confined in humane and sanitary conditions and in ways that prevent escape.

(1) Cages, pens or other enclosures for confining wild animals shall be well braced, securely fastened to the floor or ground, covered with a top as required and constructed with material of sufficient strength to prevent escape. Animals may not be released to the wild and must be confined at all times in cages, pens or enclosures except in lead or drag races or birds held under a falconry permit or as otherwise permitted in this chapter. Except for unweaned young, Class II wildlife and bobcat, American badger, coyote, red fox and gray fox may not roam freely anywhere within a residence or inhabited dwelling. The following requirements shall be met:

(A) Clean drinking water shall be available in adequate amounts at all times. Semiaquatic animals, such as beaver and muskrat, shall be provided a pool of sufficient water depth for the animal to completely submerge.

(B) A shelter shall be provided for security and protection from inclement weather. Shade or an overhead structure shall be provided in warm seasons.

© Captive wildlife shall be fed daily or as required with a diet appropriate to the species and the age, size and condition of the animal. Feeding containers shall be kept clean and uneaten food removed within a reasonable time.

(D) Animal wastes shall be removed daily and disposed of properly. If bedding is provided, it shall be cleaned out and replaced every two (2) weeks.

(2) Cages, pens or other enclosures for Class I wildlife shall meet the following standards:

Species - Enclosure Space (sq. ft.) - Space Per Each Additional Animal (sq. ft) — Enclosure Height (ft.)

(G) Gray Fox               40               8               5

(O) Red Fox                40               8                5

(3) Cages, pens or other enclosures for confining Class II wildlife shall be constructed to prevent direct physical contact with the public. At a minimum, this may be accomplished by a secondary barrier of wire mesh no smaller than eleven and one-half (11 ½) gauge with openings of no more than nine (9) square inches, with a minimum distance of three feet (3’) between animal cage and public and a minimum height of six feet (6’). Doors shall remain locked at all times with appropriate locks and chains. Enclosures shall be constructed with a den, nest box or connected housing unit that can be closed off and locked with the animal inside, or be divided cage with a door between the compartments, to allow servicing and cleaning. The enclosure mesh size or spacing of bars shall be sufficient to prevent escape. A barrier system of wet or dry moats or structures, as approved by the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, will meet these requirements.

(A) Class II wildlife shall be confined in cages, pens, enclosures or in buildings of sufficient strength with restraints affixed to all windows, doors or other means of entry or exit. 

(B) Cages, pens or other enclosures for Class II wildlife shall meet the standards outlined in Appendix A of this rule, which is included herein.

3 CSR 10-9.350 Class I Wildlife Breeder Permit

PURPOSE: This rule establishes a permit for wildlife breeders.

To exercise the privileges of a Class I wildlife breeder. Fee: fifty dollars ($50).

3 CSR 10-9.420 Wildlife Hobby Permit

PURPOSE: This rule establishes a permit to possess certain forms of wildlife for personal use but not for sale.

(1) A wildlife hobby permit authorizes the holder to purchase, possess and propagate not more than fifty (50) ring-necked pheasants and bobwhite quail, in the aggregate, for personal use only and not for sale; and to hold in captivity not more than one (1) game mammal purchased from a Missouri wildlife breeder permit holder, except that Class II wildlife, hoofed mammals and skunks may not be held under this permit. Game mammals may be held in captivity but may not be propagated or sold. This permit shall be obtained prior to receipt of wildlife. The permittee must furnish proof that game mammals and birds were legally obtained. Wildlife must be confined in humane and sanitary facilities that meet standards specified in 3 CSR 10-9.220. Wildlife may be disposed of only in accordance with instructions of an agent of the department but may not be released, sold or given away. The permittee is subject to all provisions of section 578.023,

(2) Banded birds possessed under this permit may be temporarily released and recaptured when training dogs. Any device used to recapture birds in accordance with this provision must be labeled with the user’s full name, address and wildlife hobby permit number and be attended daily. Fee: ten dollars ($10).

Citation: 3 CSR 10-9.105, 3 CSR 10-9.220, 3 CSR 10-9.350, 3 CSR 10-9.420

MONTANA

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Montana.

Note:

  • Foxes of the Genus Vulpes are explicitly banned. It may be possible to own a fox of a different Genus; examples: gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bat eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), et cetera.

The legal jargon: 

Prohibited species are live, exotic wildlife species, subspecies, or hybrid of that species, including viable embryos or gametes, that may not be possessed, sold, purchased, exchanged, or transported in Montana, except as provided in MCA 87-5-709 or ARM 12.6.2220.

Mammals

  • Addax (Addax nasomaculatus)
  • Apes (Pongidae family)
  • Axis deer (Axis axis)
  • Barbary sheep or Auoudad (Ammotragus lervia)
  • Bats (Sub order microchioptera)
  • Brushed-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)
  • Chamois (Rudicapra sp.)
  • Collared peccary (javelina) (Tayassu tajacu)
  • Exotic goats and Ibexes (All species in the genus Capra except domestic goats, Capra hircus)
  • Foxes (Vulpes sp.)
  • Gibbons (primates in the family Hylobatidae)
  • Hyena (Hyaenidae family)
  • Mouflon sheep (Ovis musimon)
  • New World Primates (Cebidae family)
  • Nutria (Myocastor coypus)
  • Old World Monkeys (Cercopithecidae family)
  • Oryx and Gemsbok (Oryx besia, Oryx dammah, Oryx gazella, Oryx leucoryx)
  • Raccoons (Procyon sp.)
  • Reedbucks (Redunca sp.)
  • Red deer (Cervus elaphus)
  • Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygarus)
  • Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis)
  • Russian boar, European boar, and hybrids thereof (Sus scrofa scrofa)
  • Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor)
  • Short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Sika deer (Cervus nippon)
  • Skunks (Genus Spilogale, Conepatus, and Methitis)
  • Small spotted Genet (Genetta genetta)
  • Southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans)
  • Tahr (Hemitragus sp.)
  • Virginia opossum or North American Opossum (Didephis virginiana)

Citation: Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

NEBRASKA

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Nebraska.

Note:

  • A Captive Wildlife Permit is required to own a fox.

The legal jargon:

Captive Wildlife Permits and Regulations

A CAPTIVE WILDLIFE PERMIT IS REQUIRED ON THE BIRDS AND ANIMALS LISTED IN THE TABLE BELOW INCLUDING EGGS FROM THESE SPECIES: 

  • Badger
  • Beaver
  • Bobcat**
  • Lynx**
  • Fox – Gray, Red
  • Mink – except mutation
  • Muskrat
  • Opossum
  • Raccoon
  • River Otter
  • Weasel – Long-tailed
  • Squirrel – Fox, Gray, Flying
  • Cottontail Rabbit
  • Sheep – Bighorn (restricted in Banner, Box, Cheyenne, Dawes, Kimball, Morrill, Scotts Bluff, Sheridan and Sioux counties)
  • Partridge – Hungarian, Chukar
  • Pheasant – Ring neck or Common Pheasant
  • Quail – Bobwhite
  • Swan – Trumpeter, Tundra*
  • Crows
  • Ducks*
  • Geese (Wild Geese: Blue, Snow, Canada, White-front, Ross, Brant, Etc.)
  • Grouse – Sharp-tail, Prairie Chicken
  • Turkey – All wild species
  • Migratory – All species protected by Migratory Bird Treaty Act.*

* = Federal permit required in addition to state permit.

** = For commercial purposes only.

Citation: Nebraska Game & Parks

NEVADA

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Nevada.

The legal jargon:

NAC 503.110  Restrictions on importation, transportation and possession of certain species.

1. Except as otherwise provided in this section and NAC 504.486, the importation, transportation or possession of the following species of live wildlife or hybrids thereof, including viable embryos or gametes, is prohibited:

(d) Mammals:

(1) Wild Dogs or Dhole

(2) Raccoon Dog

(3) Mongooses and Meerkats

(4) Wild European Rabbit

(5) Multimammate Rat or Mouse

(6) Bats

(7) Nutria

(8) Coyote

(9) Foxes (All species in the genera Vulpes, Fennecus, Urocyon, Alopex, Lycalopex and Pseudalopex)

(10) Raccoon

(11) Skunk

(12) Wild pigs and hogs

(13) Axis deer

(14) Red deer, elk and wapiti

(15) Rusa deer

(16) Sambar Deer

(17) Sika deer

(18) Roe deer

(19) White-tailed deer

(20) Moose

(21) Reedbucks

(22) Oryx and Gemsbok

(23) Addax

(24) Blesbok, Topi and Bontebok

(25) Hartebeests

(26) Wildebeest and Gnus

(27) Chamois

(28) Tahr

(29) Ibex, Wild Goats, Tur and Markhor

(30) barbary (Aoudad) Sheep

(31) Mouflon sheep, Urial, Bighorn and Argali

Citation: NAC 503.110

NEW HAMPSHIRE

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in New Hampshire.

Note:

  • Foxes are a controlled species in New Hampshire and require a permit. Permits for foxes are category 5 and the permittee must be an exhibitor.

The legal jargon:

Fis 802.01 Permittee Categories.

(a) For purposes of this chapter the permittee categories shall be as follows:

(1) An individual person shall be permittee category 1;

(2) A propagator shall be permittee category 2;

(3) An individual training and shooting permittee shall be category 3.

(4) The person operating a regulated shooting area shall be permittee category 4;

(5) An exhibitor shall be permittee category 5; and

(6) An aquaculturist shall be permittee category 6;

(7) A field trial permittee shall be permittee category 7.

Fis 804.05 Controlled Species - Possession.

(a) A permit to possess wildlife shall be required for all species, including hybrids, designated as controlled as cited in the controlled table under (b), below.

(b) A permit shall be issued only to a person in the permittee category(ies), as defined in Fis 802.01, and cited Table 800.2:

Table 800.2 Controlled Species Table – Possession

Mammals

PERMITTEE CATRGORY - / - SPECIES - / - SCIENTIFIC NAME


5 - / - Fox, Gray Fennec - / - Urocyon cinereoargenteus

5 - / - Fox, Red - / - Vulpes vulpes

Citation: N.H. Code Admin. R. Fis 802.1 and 804.05

NEW JERSEY

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in New Jersey.

Note:

  • Foxes are a potentially dangerous species and permits are not given for hobby and pet purposes.

The legal jargon:

7:25-4.7 General possession criteria

(a) Prior to the issuance of any permit permitted by these regulations, every applicant shall, in forms provided by the Department, demonstrate that:

1. The animal will be fed an adequate diet; and

2. The animal is housed or caged in a manner that:

i. Allows the animal to perform the normal behavior patterns of its species; and

ii. Prevents disease, liberation or accidental injury to the animal and the public, and

3. The method of acquisition did not violate the laws and regulation of this state, any other state or the Federal Government; and

4. The animal shall receive prompt treatment for any illness or injury from a licensed veterinarian; and

5. The animal is free of infectious diseases and parasites which may be dangerous to the animal, livestock or people of the state, provided that the Division may request certification that the animal for which the permit is being sought is free from infectious diseases and parasites from a licensed New Jersey veterinarian or a person recognized as qualified to make such certification by the Director of Fish and Wildlife.

7:25-4.8 Potentially dangerous species

(a) “Potentially dangerous species” is defined as any exotic mammals, birds, reptiles or amphibians, or nongame species which, in the opinion of the Division, is capable of inflicting serious or fatal injuries or which has the potential to become an agricultural pest, or a menace to the public health or indigenous wildlife populations, including, but not limited to the following:

CLASS/ORDER FAMILY

  • Primates (Cebidae – New World Monkeys; Cercophithecidae – Old World Monkeys; Baboons; Pongidae – Apes)
  • Carnivora (Canidae – Nondomestic dogs; Ursidae – Bears; Felidae – Nondomestic cats)
  • Saura [Venomous] (Helodermatidae – Gila monsters)
  • Serpentes [Venomous] (Elapidae – Coral snakes and cobras; Viperidae – Vipers; Crotalidae – Pit Vipers)
  • Crocodilia (Alligatoridae – Alligators and caiman; Crocodylidae – crocodiles; Gavialidae - gavials)
  • Psittaciformes (Psittaculis spp. – Ring-necked parakeets; Myiopsitta spp. – Monk (Quaker) parakeets; Cyanoliseus patagonus – Patagonian Conures)
  • Rodentia (Cynomys spp. – Prairie dogs; Spermophilus spp. – Ground squirrels)

(b) The Department, in its discretion, may issue a permit for possession of a potentially dangerous species only after a clear showing that the criteria for the possession of such potentially dangerous species have been met.

7:25-4.9 Criteria for the possession of potentially dangerous species

(a) In addition to the general criteria enumerated above in section 7:25-4.7, every person applying for a permit to possess potentially dangerous species shall meet each and every of the following criteria to the satisfaction of the Division:

1. Education and Background: Persons wishing to apply for a permit to possess a potentially dangerous species must have extensive experience in maintaining the species desired or related species.

2. Knowledge: Persons wishing to apply for a permit to possess potentially dangerous species must demonstrate a working knowledge and expertise in handling and caring for each of the species desired.

3. Protection of the Public: The housing facilities shall also be constructed to prevent public access to and contact with the animal. The potentially dangerous species shall not be kept as a pet, for hobby purposes or in situations, which, in the judgment of the Department, could adversely affect the health of the animal or which could constitute a hazard to the public.

4. Purpose and Intent: Persons applying to possess potentially dangerous species must submit a written statement of the purpose and intent of keeping the species.

5. Housing and Feeding: Persons applying for a permit to possess a potentially dangerous species must supply a written description of the housing and caging facilities for the species required. A summary must be submitted of a continuous source of food for the specific diet of the animals. Division personnel may inspect the completed facilities to determine if the facilities are suitable for the animal. Facilities must be constructed to prevent the possible escape of the animal.

6. Other Restrictions: Under no circumstances shall a person issued a pet shop or animal dealer permit possess any potentially dangerous species on the commercial premises, except in emergencies and for a limited period of time as stipulated by the Department in writing and subsequently agreed to by the animal dealer or pet shop owner, who shall assume full responsibility for the safety and welfare of both the animal and the public during its temporary storage. A potentially dangerous animal already on display at the premises of a pet shop or animal dealer and already under a permit for such display as of January 17, 1995 may remain so displayed under the terms and conditions of that permit for the lifetime of that animal.

Citation: NJR 7:25-4.7, 7:25-4.8, 7:25-4.9

NEW MEXICO

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in New Mexico.

Note:

  • Foxes are not allowed to be imported into New Mexico for pet purposes. There are no breeders within the state.

The legal jargon:

Pursuant to regulation (19 NMAC 35.7) the species importation list shall be maintained, updated or amended by the Director as species information and concerns are identified.

The list contains a variety of species for quick reference and public awareness.

Each importation group is represented by a roman numeral in the “Group” column.

Importation groups are defined as follows:

Group I - Species importation list group I are designated semi-domesticated animals and do not require 
an importation permit;

Group II - Species importation list group II may be for live non-domesticated animals that are not known to be either invasive or dangerous and do not present a known risk to the health, safety or well-being of the public, domestic livestock or to native wildlife and their habitats.

Group III - Species importation list group III may be for live non-domesticated animals that present minimal or manageable concerns that will require specific provisions that must be met prior to issuing an importation permit to address health, safety or well-being of the public, domestic livestock or to native wildlife and their habitats.

Group IV - Species importation list group IV may be for live non-domesticated animals that are considered dangerous, invasive, undesirable, state or federal listed threatened, endangered, a furbearer or any other species of concern as identified by the director. The importation of these species are prohibited for the general public but may be allowed for, scientific study, department approved restoration and recovery plans, zoological display, temporary events/entertainment, use as service animal or by a qualified expert.

Note: any species of live non-domesticated animal not currently on the species importation list will be designated group IV until such time as another determination is made by the director.

CLASS - QUICK REFERENCE - FAMILY - SCIENTIFIC NAME - COMMON NAME - GROUP

Mammal - Dog, wild - Canidae - Canis simensis - Fox, Simien - IV

Mammal - Dog, wild - Canidae - Lycalopex sp. - Fox, South American - IV

Mammal - Dog, wild - Canidae - Urocyon littoralis - Fox, Island - IV

Mammal - Dog, wild - Canidae - Vulpes (sp.variety) - Fox (any type) - IV

Citation: New Mexico Department of Game & Fish - Director’s Species Importation List

NEW YORK

 To put it simply: no, most foxes are not legal in New York.

Note:

  • Fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda) are the only species of fox that are allowed in the state of New York.

The legal jargon:

§ 11-0103. Definitions

As used in the Fish and Wildlife Law:

e. “Wild animal” shall not include “companion animal” as defined in section three hundred fifty of the agriculture and markets law. Wild animal includes, and is limited to, any or all of the following orders and families:

(1) Nonhuman primates and prosimians,

(2) Felidae and all hybrids thereof, with the exception of the species Felis catus (domesticated and feral cats, which shall mean domesticated cats that were formerly owned and that have been abandoned and that are no longer socialized, as well as offspring of such cats) and hybrids of Felis catus that are registered by the American Cat Fanciers Association or the International Cat Association provided that such cats be without any wild felid parentage for a minimum of five generations,

(3) Canidae (with the exception of domesticated dogs and captive bred fennec foxes (vulpes zerda)),

(4) Ursidae,

(5) All reptiles that are venomous by nature, pursuant to department regulation, and the following species and orders: Burmese Python (Python m. bivittatus), Reticulated Python (Python reticulatus), African Rock Python (Python sabae), Green Anaconda (Eunectes maurinus), Yellow Anaconda (Eunectes notaeus), Australian Amethystine Python (Morelia amethistina and Morelia kinghorni), Indian Python (Python molurus), Asiatic (water) Monitor ( Varanus salvator), Nile Monitor ( Varanus nilocitus), White Throat Monitor ( Varanus albigularis), Black Throat Monitor ( Varanus albigularis ionides) and Crocodile Monitor ( Varanus salvadori), Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodensis) and any hybrid thereof,

(6) Crocodylia.

§ 11-0512. Possession, sale, barter, transfer, exchange and import of wild animals as pets prohibited

1. It shall be prohibited for any person to:

a. knowingly possess, harbor, sell, barter, transfer, exchange or import any wild animal for use as a pet in New York state, except as provided in subdivision three of this section; or

b. intentionally release or set at-large any wild animal, authorized by this section for use as a pet, from the location where the animal is permitted to be possessed or harbored.

2. This section shall not apply to the following persons and entities with respect to wild animals owned or harbored by them solely for a purpose other than for use as a pet:

a. Zoological facilities licensed pursuant to 7 USC. Sec. 2131 et seq.;

b. Exhibitors licensed pursuant to the Animal Welfare Act, 7 USC. Sections 2132-2134 and reptile exhibitors who have demonstrated to the department, in accordance with regulations promulgated by the commissioner, that the sole purpose for which the wild animal or animals are used is for exhibition to the public for profit or compensation;

c. Research facilities as defined in the Animal Welfare Act, 7 USC. Section 2132 (e), which are licensed by the United States Secretary of Agriculture;

d. Licensed veterinarians and incorporated humane societies, animal shelters, societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals or animal welfare organizations in temporary possession of wild animals;

e. State universities, private colleges or universities, or state agencies working with wild animals;

f. Wildlife rehabilitators licensed pursuant to the provisions of subdivision three of section 11-0515 of this title and regulations promulgated thereunder, who are tending to sick or injured wild animals;

g. A person having custody of a wild animal solely for the purpose of transporting it to a licensed veterinarian, wildlife rehabilitator, humane society or other entity authorized by this section to handle or treat wild animals;

h. A wildlife sanctuary as defined in subdivision thirty-two of section 11-0103 of this article;

i. A person who is not a resident of this state who is in the state only for the purpose of travelling between locations outside the state. In no event shall this time period exceed ten days;

j. A person who is paralyzed from the neck down who possesses a new world monkey trained to perform tasks for its owner by an organization described in section 501© of the Internal Revenue Code of 19861 and dedicated to improving the quality of life of persons paralyzed from the neck down.

3. Any person who possesses or harbors a wild animal for use as a pet at the time that this section takes effect may retain possession of such animal for the remainder of its life, provided that such person:

a. Has not been convicted of any offense relating to cruelty to animals or under a judicial order prohibiting possession of animals;

b. Applies to the department within six months of the effective date of this section, and obtains from the department, a license pursuant to subdivision four of this section;

c. Complies with all applicable federal, state, or local laws, including any ordinance, rule or regulation adopted by a local board of health, or any rules and regulations established by the department as requisites for ownership of such wild animal; and

d. Reports a release to the local police department and animal control immediately upon discovery of the release. Each escape during a twelve month period of time will subject the possessor to penalties by the department pursuant to subdivisions eight and nine of this section.

4. The department shall be required to issue licenses authorizing possession of wild animals only to those persons who comply with the provisions of subdivision three of this section and with any regulations promulgated by the department thereunder. Such licenses shall be valid in any jurisdiction within the state where possession of a wild animal is not prohibited by local law or ordinance, rule or regulation adopted by a local board of health, and shall be renewable biennially during the life of the animal subject to continued compliance with the provisions of this section and with any regulations promulgated thereunder. The department shall forward copies of such licenses to the clerk of the city, town or village in which each wild animal is harbored.

a. License applications shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following:

(1) The name, address and telephone number of the person who owns, possesses or harbors the wild animal or animals, including an acknowledgment that the person who owns, possesses or harbors the wild animal or animals is twenty-one years of age or older.

(2) The address of the location where the wild animal or animals will be kept, if different from the above.

(3) A detailed description of each wild animal owned, possessed or harbored, including species, gender, age, any identifying characteristics, and an identification tag or tattoo if required by the department, with proof, acceptable to the department, that each such wild animal was acquired prior to the effective date of this section.

(4) The name, address and telephone number of the veterinarian, who has agreed to treat the wild animal.

(5) An acknowledgment indicating that the wild animal or animals will not be bred.

(6) A detailed certification establishing that the location in which the wild animal will be kept complies with all appropriate standards of care and at minimum complies with the standards for animal care set forth in the Federal Animal Welfare Act and other applicable federal, state and local standards, including, but not limited to housing, temperature, ventilation, drainage, sanitation, food, water, exercise and veterinary care appropriate to the species and sufficient to maintain the wild animal in good health.

(7) An acknowledgment that the wild animal will not be tied, tethered, or chained outdoors, allowed to run at large and that the wild animal will not be brought to any public park or commercial or retail establishment unless it is being brought to a veterinarian or veterinary clinic.

(8) An acknowledgment that possession, harboring or owning such wild animal does not violate any applicable federal, state or local law, including any ordinance, rule or regulation adopted by a local board of health.

b. The department shall set biennial license fees for the possession of wild animals pursuant to subdivision three of this section in an amount determined to be reasonable but not more than one hundred seventy-five dollars for two years for each wild animal. License fees shall be used solely for the implementation and enforcement of this section.

5. The provisions of the state administrative procedure act shall apply to the denial or revocation of a license.

6. Any person in possession of a wild animal as a pet that has been granted a license pursuant to subdivision four of this section shall not breed, or sell, trade, barter or exchange such wild animal.

7. A person possessing, owning or harboring a wild animal who is denied a license pursuant to subdivision four of this section, or whose license is revoked, shall surrender such wild animal to the department or an authorized agent thereof at a location designated by the department for such surrender or a police or peace officer of this state, a local animal control officer, or a duly incorporated society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, or provide proof that the animal has been humanely euthanized according to American Veterinary Medical Association standards by a licensed veterinarian.

8. The department, any police or peace officer of this state, a local animal control officer, or a duly incorporated society for the prevention of cruelty to animals is hereby authorized to enforce the provisions of this section and issue notices of violation to persons in violation of this section, and shall have the authority to seize any wild animal held in violation of this section. A county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals must obtain a warrant before seizing a wild animal or arresting a person who owns or possesses a wild animal under this section. Wild animals seized or surrendered pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be transferred to a duly incorporated wildlife sanctuary as defined in this section, or a zoological facility, or shall be humanely euthanized. Any costs associated with seizing, transferring, recapturing or euthanizing a wild animal shall be borne by the person who owned, harbored or possessed the animal. The department shall also have the authority to seek injunctive relief in any court of appropriate jurisdiction to prevent continued violations of this section.

9. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person who knowingly breeds a wild animal or knowingly possesses, owns, harbors, sells, barters, transfers, exchanges, or imports a wild animal for use as a pet or intentionally releases or sets at-large any wild animal, authorized by this section for use as a pet, from the location where the animal is permitted to be possessed or harbored in violation of the provisions of this section shall be subject to a penalty of not more than five hundred dollars for the first offense and not more than one thousand dollars for a second and subsequent offenses. Each instance of breeding, owning, harboring, sale, barter, release, transfer, exchange, or import of a wild animal in violation of this section shall constitute a separate offense.

10. Nothing contained in this section shall prevent any city, town or county from enacting more restrictive provisions governing the possession of wild animals for use as pets.

Citation: NY ENVIR CONSER § 11-0103, § 11-0512

NORTH CAROLINA

 o put it simply: yes, foxes appear to be legal in North Carolina.

Note: 

  • Possession of live wildlife generally requires a permit or license. Contact the Division of Wildlife Management office at (919) 707-0060 for the appropriate permit or license.

The legal jargon:

Definition of Terms

To understand the law governing the possession, buying and selling of wildlife, one must know and understand the definitions of certain key terms as they are used in the text of the statutes and rules dealing with this subject. These definitions may vary substantially from common usage. N.C.G.S. ß113-129 lists a number of the basic ones. Those relevant to these subjects are:

4. Game Animals – Bear, fox, rabbit, squirrel, wild boar, and deer, not to include fallow deer raised for production and sale under G.S. 106-549.97; bobcat, opossum, and raccoon except when trapped in accordance with provisions relating to fur-bearing animals. 

14. Wild Animals – Game animals; furbearing animals; and all other wild mammals except marine mammals found in coastal fishing waters. In addition, this definition includes members of the following groups which are on the federal list of endangered or threatened species: wild amphibians, wild reptiles except sea turtles inhabiting and depending upon coastal fishing waters, and wild invertebrates except invertebrates declared to be pests under the Structural Pest Control Act of North Carolina of 1955 or the North Carolina Pesticide Law of 1971. Nothing in this definition is intended to abrogate G.S. 113-132©, confer jurisdiction upon the Wildlife Resources Commission as to any subject exclusively regulated by any other agency, or to authorize the Wildlife Resources Commission by its regulations to supersede valid provision of law or regulation administered by any other agency. 

16. Wildlife – Wild animals; wild birds; all fish found in inland fishing waters; and inland game fish. Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions of wildlife, wildlife resources, wild animals, wild birds, fish, and the like are deemed to include species normally wild, or indistinguishable from wild species, which are raised or kept in captivity. Nothing in this definition is intended to abrogate the exclusive authority given the Department of Agriculture to regulate the production and sale of pen-raised quail for food purposes. 

Possession and Collection

Definitions of “wildlife” in the General Statues vary. For purposes of this section, “wildlife” is defined as all wild animals found in North Carolina. With respect to possession and collection of wildlife, the Statutes generally distinguish between dead wildlife, live wildlife, and exotic wildlife.

Dead Wildlife: Dead wildlife, lawfully taken may be possessed and transported without a permit. See Hunting and Trapping regulations for legal manner of take, seasons, bag limits, and possession limits. An individual may accept the gift of lawfully taken wildlife provided that it does not cause them to exceed the applicable possession limits for that species. If the person receiving the gift notes and preserves in writing the name and address of the donor and under what license or exemption from license requirement the wildlife was taken, they may possess that wildlife without a permit.

Dead wildlife may be possessed also under any number of special permits or licenses. You should refer to the terms of that permit or license to determine the legal requirements. Contact the Division of Wildlife Management office at (919) 707-0060 for the appropriate permit or license.

Live Wildlife: Possession of live wildlife generally requires a permit or license. Contact the Division of Wildlife Management office at (919) 707-0060 for the appropriate permit or license.

There are a few exceptions:

  1. The law does allow crippled, injured or orphaned wildlife to be kept in captivity for a period of not longer than 5 days provided that person applies to the Commission for a Captivity Permit within that five day period or gives up possession of the wild animal to a licensed wildlife rehabilitator within that 5 day period. The law is different for crippled, orphaned, or injured bear or deer. For these two species, the Commission should be notified immediately. A Commission representative will then arrange for transport to an approved deer or bear rehabilitation facility.
  2. The law allows for taking of bait fish and freshwater mussels in certain situations. See Possession and Collection of Nongame Wildlife for more information.
  3. Individuals may hold less than five reptiles or less than 25 amphibians not on the endangered, threatened or special concern lists and not including spotted turtles, Carolina pygmy rattlesnakes, timber (canebrake) rattlesnakes and Eastern coral snakes without a Captivity License or Permit. See Possession and Collection of Nongame Wildlife for more information.

Exotic Wildlife: It is unlawful to import, transport, export, purchase, possess, or sell any species of Tongueless or African Clawed Frog (Xenopus spp.), or to stock them in the public or private waters or lands of North Carolina. (Exceptions may be made in certain situations for qualified research institutions). See Possession and Collection of Nongame Wildlife for more information.

Citation: North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission

NORTH DAKOTA

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in North Dakota.

Note:

  • Ranch fox (non-red colored red fox (Vulpes vulpes)) are Category 1 Non-Traditional Livestock in North Dakota. Category 1 species do not require nontraditional livestock licensure, but must otherwise comply with laws and rules of the board.
  • Kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteusare Category 2 Non-Traditional Livestock in North Dakota. Owners of Category 2 species must maintain nontraditional livestock licensure.  A Permit to Possess, Propagate, or Domesticate from the North Dakota Game and Fish Department is required for some Category 2 species.

The legal jargon:

Non-Traditional Livestock (Includes exotic/non-domestic animals)

In North Dakota, non-domestic animals are classified into three categories of Non-Traditional Livestock. 

Category 1 animals are those species generally considered domestic, or other species that are not inherently dangerous, that do not pose a health risk to humans, domestic or wild species, and do not pose a hazard to the environment as determined by the board.  Category 1 includes turkeys, geese and ducks morphologically distinguishable from wild turkeys, geese, and ducks, pigeons, mules, donkeys, asses, ratites, chinchilla, Guinea fowl, ferrets, ranch foxes, ranch mink, peafowl, all pheasants, quail, chukar, hedgehog, and degus.  Category 1 species do not require nontraditional livestock licensure, but must otherwise comply with laws and rules of the board.  Owners of pheasants, quail, and chukar are required to obtain a Permit to Possess, Propagate, or Domesticate (PPD) according to North Dakota Game and Fish Department regulations.  The PPD permit is issued through the Animal Health Division of the North Dakota Department of Agriculture.

Category 2 animals are certain protected species or those species that may pose health risks to humans or animals or may be environmentally hazardous as determined by the board.  Category 2 includes all nondomestic ungulates, including all deer and pronghorn, nondomestic cats not listed in category 3, waterfowl, shorebirds, upland game birds not listed in category 1, crows, wolverines, otters, martens, fishers, kit or swift foxes, badgers, coyotes, mink, red and gray fox, muskrats, beavers, weasels, opossums, prairie dogs, and other ground squirrels.  Owners of category 2 species must maintain nontraditional livestock licensure.  A Permit to Possess, Propagate, or Domesticate from the North Dakota Game and Fish Department is required for some category 2 species.  The PPD permit is issued through the Animal Health Division of the North Dakota Department of Agriculture.

Category 3 animals are those species determined by the board to pose special concerns, including species which are inherently dangerous or environmentally hazardous.  Owners of category 3 species must maintain nontraditional livestock licensure and are subject to additional housing and care requirements.  A Permit to Possess, Propagate, or Domesticate from the North Dakota Game and Fish Department is required for some category 3 species.  Category 3 includes the following species and their hybrids:

  • Wild species of the family suidae (any swine not considered domestic in North Dakota by the board)
  • Big cats, including mountain lion, jaguar, leopard, lion, tiger, and cheetah
  • Bears
  • Wolves and wolf-hybrids (any animal that is part wolf)
  • Venomous reptiles
  • Primates
  • Non-domestic sheep and their hybrids and non-domestic goats and their hybrids  

Citation: North Dakota Department of Agriculture

OHIO

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Ohio.

Note:

  • Foxes require a “noncommercial propagating license,” which costs $25 per year.

The legal jargon:

1531.01 Division of wildlife definitions.

® “Game” includes game birds, game quadrupeds, and fur-bearing animals.

(U) “Wild quadrupeds” includes game quadrupeds and fur-bearing animals.

(W) “Fur-bearing animals” includes minks, weasels, raccoons, skunks, opossums, muskrats, fox, beavers, badgers, otters, coyotes, and bobcats.

1533.71 License to raise or keep game birds and animals.

(A) Unless otherwise provided in this section or by division rule, any person desiring to engage in the business of raising and selling game birds, game quadrupeds, reptiles, amphibians, or fur-bearing animals in a wholly enclosed preserve of which the person is the owner or lessee, or to have game birds, game quadrupeds, reptiles, amphibians, or fur-bearing animals in captivity, shall submit an application to the division of wildlife for a license to do so. This section does not apply to a person who possesses wild animals under the authority of a license for a wild animal hunting preserve or a commercial bird shooting preserve.

The division, when it appears that the application is made in good faith and the applicant is in compliance with division (B) of this section, if applicable, and upon the payment of the fee for each license, may issue to the applicant any of the following licenses that may be applied for:

(2) “Noncommercial propagating license” permitting the licensee to propagate game birds, game quadrupeds except captive white-tailed deer, reptiles, amphibians, or fur-bearing animals and to hold the animals in captivity. Game birds, game quadrupeds except captive white-tailed deer, reptiles, amphibians, and fur-bearing animals propagated or held in captivity by authority of a noncommercial propagating license are for the licensee’s own use and shall not be sold. The fee for such a license is twenty-five dollars per annum.

1533.77 Records of game held by a licensee; display of license.

(A) Each holder of a noncommercial or commercial propagating license issued under section 1533.71 of the Revised Code shall keep the license prominently displayed at the place of business specified in the license, and shall keep accurate written records that shall include the total number of game birds, game quadrupeds, or fur-bearing animals possessed on the date of application for the license, the number subsequently propagated or acquired by purchase or gift, the number that escaped, the number that were released, the number that died, and the name and address of each person or corporation from whom or to whom game birds, game quadrupeds or fur-bearing animals were received as a gift or given as a gift or purchased or sold alive or sold for food, and the date of each transaction. These records shall be kept permanently on the premises stated in the license, and shall be open for inspection by any authorized representative of the division of wildlife at all reasonable times.

(B) Each holder of a captive white-tailed deer propagation license issued under section 1533.71 of the Revised Code shall maintain all records that are required in rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code. The records shall be kept permanently on the premises stated in the license and shall be open for inspection by any authorized representative of the department of agriculture at all reasonable times and of the division of wildlife at all reasonable times in conjunction with an active criminal investigation.

© The holder of a captive white-tailed deer propagation license shall not knowingly falsify any record or tag that is required in rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code or in rules adopted under section 1531.10 of the Revised Code.

Citation: Ohio Department of Natural Resources Division of Wildlife

OKLAHOMA

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Oklahoma.

Note:

  • A non-commercial breeder’s license is required for foxes, except fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda), which are exempt from import and export permits, commercial wildlife breeders licenses, noncommercial wildlife breeders licenses and commercial hunting area license requirements.

The legal jargon:

APPLICATION FOR NON-COMMERCIAL WILDLIFE BREEDER’S LICENSE

There are two types of licenses for breeding birds or animals. With both licenses, you can legally breed only purchased animals and you must have receipts of the purchases of the breeding stock. Also, with both licenses, you need to have the facility built, inspected by the warden of the county in which the facility is located, and have your license in hand before purchasing your breeding stock. Renewal forms for both licenses are mailed to the breeders during late June.

The commercial breeder’ s license is purchased when the breeder wants to sell the birds or animals he raises or his stock. The license is $48.00 annually and needs to be renewed by July lst.With the commercial license, the breeder is given a two-carbon page sales receipt to use when he sells his animals; one carbon copy for the breeder’s files, one carbon copy to mail to this office and the original to go to the purchaser. An annual report form is completed by the breeder at the end of the year and is mailed to this office giving all the details or purchase, sales, deaths and births of animals being raised for that year.

The non-commercial breeder’s license is purchased when the breeder wants to raise animals for his or her own consumption, keep as a pet, or to release with permission of landowner. This license is $10.00 annually and need to be renewed by July 1. An annual report and sales receipts aren’t necessary since there is no sale of animals.

If a person intends to purchase animals from out-of-state to breed, he or she will need an import and breeder’s license from the Law Enforcement Division before importing the animals. I have a schedule that’s show which animals require an import permit from ODWC or the Agriculture Department and a breeder’s license from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation.

800:25-25-3. Exemptions

(a)    The following wildlife species are exempt from import and export permits, commercial wildlife breeders licenses, noncommercial wildlife breeders licenses and commercial hunting area license requirements.

(1)    Alpacas, guanacos and vicuans (all similar to llamas).

(2)    Bison.

(3)    Camels.

(4)    Cats (except native cats and bears).

(5)    Cattle (Bos sp.)

(6)    Chickens (domestic fowl, including guineas).

(7)    Chinchillas.

(8)    Dogs (except coyotes and native foxes).

(9)    Exotic tropical fish (except those prohibited from import or possession by Commission regulation or statute)

(10)    Ferrets (except black-footed, Mustela nigripes).

(11)    Gerbils.

(12)    Goats

(13)    Guinea pigs.

(14)    Hamsters.

(15)    Hedgehogs.

(16)    Horse, donkeys and mules.

(17)    Llamas.

(18)    Mice (except those species normally found in the wild).

(19)    Native invertebrates (except crayfish and all freshwater mussels including Zebra mussel and Asian clam).

(20)    Peafowl.

(21)    Pigeons.

(22)    Migratory waterfowl not listed as protected by Federal Regulation 50 CFR.

(23)    Pigs except javelinas.

(24)    Rabbits (except cottontails, jackrabbits and swamp rabbits, and other such species normally found in the wild).

(25)    Rats (except those species normally found in the wild).

(26)    Salt water crustaceans and mollusks (import for human consumption).

(27)    Sheep (except dall and bighorn sheep, Ovis sp.).

(28)    Turkeys (except Rio Grande, Eastern, Merriam and Osceola or any subspecies).

(29)    Zebras.

(30)    Gerboa.

(31)    Sugar gliders

(32)    Civits.

(33)    Wallaby.

(34)    Kangaroo.

(35)    Fennec Fox.

(36)    Coatimundi.

(37)    Primates.

Citation: Application for Non-Commercial Wildlife Breeder’s License; OK ADC 800:25-25-3

OREGON

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Oregon.

Note:

  • Native foxes, red foxes (Vulpes Vulpes) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), require a fur farm permit. With a fur farm permit, you must have 10 or more foxes and you must raise them for commercial profit.
  • Any animal that is not listed as regulated, non-regulated, prohibited or domestic are to be treated as prohibited, which would prohibit all nonnative and exotic fox species.

The legal jargon:

635-056-0010

Definitions

(3) “Commercial Fur Farm” means any operation which raises captive fox (Vulpes vulpes or Urocyon cinereoargenteus) or mink (Mustela vison) for profit and possesses 10 or more animals.

(6) Except where used in reference to ORS chapter 609, “Exotic” means a wildlife species not native to Oregon; foreign or introduced.

635-056-0050

Prohibited Species

(1) Except as otherwise provided in these rules or other rules of the commission, live wildlife listed below may not be imported, possessed, sold, purchased, exchanged or transported in the state:

(a) Prohibited Mammals: Common Name – Family – Genus/species:

(B) Order Carnivora:

(i) Wild canids – Canidae – All native species. However, fox (Vulpes vulpes and Urocyon cinereoargenteus) are exempt from this prohibitition if when part of a commercial fur farming operation or for wildlife rehabilitation purposes by a licensed wildlife rehabilitator;

Citation: OR CODE 635-056-0010 & 635-056-0050; OR S.B. 391

PENNSYLVANIA

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Pennsylvania, but…

Note:

  • In order to get a permit, you must have at least two years of experience with foxes (other exotics will not count), a letter from someone who already has a permit that will confirm your experience, and an enclosure built to the PGC’s specifications
  • The PCG is extremely difficult to deal with. According to a Pennsylvanian fox owner, they are no longer giving out permits.

The legal jargon:

§ 147.281. Scope.

 (a)  General and definitions.This subchapter relates to safeguards for public safety, humane care and treatment, adequate housing and nutrition, sanitation, safety, acquisition and disposal of wildlife and exotic wildlife held as part of a menagerie under the act or this part. Definitions contained in section 2961 of the act (relating to definitions) apply to this subchapter.

 (b)  Confinement.It is unlawful to maintain wildlife, in confinement, in an unsanitary or unsafe condition or in a manner which results in maltreatment, mistreatment or neglect. No wildlife may be confined in a pen, cage or enclosure which does not meet minimum pen specifications in this subchapter. An animal may not be chained or tethered, or otherwise impeded from moving freely within a cage or enclosure unless otherwise indicated on the permit.

 ©  Housing.Wildlife maintained under section 2964 of the act (relating to menagerie permits) shall be housed in a safe and sanitary manner. Failure to provide sanitary surroundings for wildlife, or failure to adequately protect the public from wildlife possessed under this subchapter is a violation.

 (d)  Bill of sale.It is unlawful for a person to possess wildlife, for the purpose of exhibition, except as provided in this subchapter, without having a bill of sale or other documentary evidence showing the name and address of the supplier of the wildlife.

 (e)  Permit.The menagerie permit shall be produced upon demand of an officer of the Commission.

 (f)  Citizenship.Menagerie permits may be issued to a person who is a citizen of the United States.

 (g)  Experience required.A new applicant for a menagerie permit shall provide documentation of at least 2 years experience of hands-on work with the designated species, including care, feeding, handling, training and husbandry. This experience shall be from a recognized/approved facility and the owner, manager or licensee of this facility shall provide a letter of reference.

§ 147.282. Safety.

 (a)  Cage construction shall be sufficiently strong to contain the wildlife and to protect the animal from injury from other specimens on exhibit. Caging determined unsafe by Commission personnel shall be reconstructed as directed. Reconstruction shall be completed and approved within 30 days after official notification from the Commission.

 (b)  Except as provided in subsections © and (d), wildlife may not be removed from cages or directly exposed to the public. Safety barriers shall be present to adequately prevent wildlife from touching, grasping or biting visitors. Barriers, such as walls, fences, moats, retaining rails and other necessary devices shall be present to prevent the public from approaching the cages, pens, enclosures or areas near enough to contact the wildlife.

 ©  Public human contact with the following designated animals is permitted under the specified conditions:

   (1)  Ruminant animals.

   (2)  Organ grinder monkeys, trained performing chimpanzees and elephants if under the immediate control of the handler to preclude danger to the public.

 (d)  Wildlife other than members of the families Ursidae, Felidae and wild Canidae when exhibited on a stage or in an arena, may be removed from their cage by the exhibitor in a manner precluding danger to the public. Other human contact with the wildlife is prohibited.

§ 147.283. Sanitation.

 (a)  Sanitation. Wildlife maintained under this subchapter shall be kept in a sanitary manner.

 (b)  Water. Clean, fresh water shall be provided daily. Water containers shall be cleaned and disinfected daily.

 ©  Food. Food shall be kept in a manner to prevent spoilage or contamination.

 (d)  Waste. Fecal and food waste shall be removed from cages and dens daily and disposed of or stored in a manner to prevent noxious odors or attraction of insects or vermin. Hard floors shall be scrubbed and disinfected at least weekly. Large pens and paddocks with dirt floors shall be raked every 3 days and the waste removed.

 (e)  Drainage and pools. Cages, pens and paddocks shall be designed to provide adequate drainage of the enclosure. Standing water is not allowed except in the case of animals requiring water for wading, submersing or swimming. Pools provided for wildlife shall be cleaned as often as needed to ensure good water quality.

 (f)  General requirements. Procedures for sanitation, water disposal and proper disposition of feces and other waste material shall be in compliance with the requirements of local, State or Federal authorities.

§ 147.284. Housing.

 (a)  Cages or enclosures except paddocks, corrals, islands or grotto-type exhibits shall be covered at the top to prevent escape.

 (b)  A cage or enclosure shall have bedding required for the comfort and protection from inclement weather. A suitable shield for protection against the hot sun rays shall be provided on outside enclosures. If the natural climate of the wildlife being held differs from the climate of the area where the menagerie is located, provisions shall be made to adjust holding conditions to the natural habitat.

   © Signs shall be conspicuously posted on cages or enclosures prohibiting the public from feeding, except food obtained from the permittee, or annoying the wildlife. The owner or operator is responsible for enforcement.

   (d) A cage or enclosure shall be labeled in English with the proper common name of the wildlife confined. The letters shall be at least 1 inch in height.

   (e) A cage shall have a secure locking device and shall be key locked or padlocked.

§ 147.285. Specifications.

 It is unlawful for a permit holder to confine wildlife in a pen, cage or enclosure which does not meet minimum specifications or caging requirements. Except as otherwise provided in this section, minimum specifications and caging requirements for captive wildlife shall comply with the following:

 (4)  Carnivores and certain omnivores with similar requirements.

(xvii)   Foxes, jackals, and the like.

       (A)   Number or size: One pair.

       (B)   Cage size: 8'L by 4'W by 6'H.

       ©   Accessories: One shelf 18"W by 3'H by 4'L. A den or nest box area is also required.

§ 147.286. Acquisition and disposal.

 (a)  Wildlife at a menagerie shall have been lawfully taken, exported, imported, transported, retained and possessed.

 (b)  The acquisition or disposal of wildlife shall be for the sole purpose of maintaining stock for the menagerie. Disposal or transfer for any reason is limited to persons who may lawfully import the wildlife being transferred.

 ©  The Commission officer approving the menagerie permit shall be notified, in writing, within 10 days after receipt of additional wildlife.

 (d)  The Commission officer approving the menagerie permit shall be notified, in writing, 10 days prior to disposal of wildlife when feasible.

 (e)  Records shall be maintained of acquisitions and disposals of wildlife as well as wildlife born or hatched at the menagerie. Records shall be in ink and written in plain English. Records shall be available for inspection by Commission personnel at any reasonable hour.

§ 147.287. Health and welfare.

 Wildlife shall be kept free from parasites, sickness or disease. If sick or unsightly, wildlife shall be removed from public display and immediately given professional medical attention, or be destroyed in a humane manner.

Citation: 058 PA. CODE § 147.281-147.287

RHODE ISLAND

 To put it simply: yes, exotic foxes are legal in Rhode Island.

Note:

  • Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteusare native animals and their importation and possession is restricted to the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Department of Environmental Management, and American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums (AAZPA) approved zoos and research institutes.
  • However, private persons seeking private ownership can own exotic animals - and animals that are neither domestic or native - with an exotic animal possession permit.
  • Examples of exotic foxes: fennec fox (Vulpes zerda), swift fox (Vulpes velox), kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), et cetera.

The legal jargon:

RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING IMPORTATION AND POSSESSION OF NATIVE WILDLIFE

PART 1

PROHIBITION

1.1 – No person shall import, receive, or possess in this state a native animal, exotic animal, a member of a target species, or a hybrid, unless in possession of a current permit issued by the Director pursuant to these regulations.

PART 2

REQUIREMENTS FOR IMPORTATION AND POSSESSION OF NATIVE WILDLIFE

2.1 – A PERMIT to import, receive, or possess in this state native wildlife and hybrids thereof shall be restricted to the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, (AAZPA) approved zoos and research institutes with approved certification and as determined by the Director that the permit is involved in an approved bona fide experiment or project. Permittee is required to conform with all applicable federal, state and local requirements for licensure certification or permit.

Persons applying for permits to possess migratory birds must first acquire appropriate Federal permits in the appropriate category described in 50 CFR Part 21 and 22. Permits issued for the purpose of education must adhere to guidance as directed in the “Wildlife in Education – A Guide for the Care and Use of Program Animals” and companion document “Introduction to Wildlife Education Programming”.  Raptor educators may use The Raptor Center’s “Care and Management of Captive Raptors in place of the “Wildlife in Education Guide.” Other guidance manuals meeting or exceeding the above may be used if deemed acceptable by the Division.

The exception(s) of this section shall be the propagation and raising of game birds pursuant to the provisions of Title 20 rules and regulations governing wildlife rehabilitation and possession of reptiles and amphibians as promulgated annually in Rhode Island hunting rules and regulations.

RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING IMPORTATION AND POSSESSION OF EXOTIC WILD ANIMALS

RULE 5: REQUIREMENTS

1. A permit to import into, receive, or possess in this state animals defined as exotic animals under section 4.7 herein, shall be restricted to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums (AAZPA) approved zoos and research institutes or other USDA approved facilities as well as exhibitors and private persons seeking to import or possess an exotic animal for private ownership pursuant to the provisions of sections 4-18-3 and 4-18-6 of the Rhode Island General Law, 1956, as amended herein. Obtaining such permit does not preclude conformance with such other Federal, State, or Local requirements for licensure certification or permit which may be required.

2. No other person shall be allowed to import, receive, or possess any animals defined as exotic animals under section 4.7 herein, other than USDA/AAZPA approved zoos and research institutes, or as well as exhibitors and private persons seeking to import or possess an exotic animal.

3. The Director at his/her discretion may issue an exotic animal possession permit to import, receive, or possess exotic animals as defined in section 54.7. An exotic animal possession permit is not required for importation or possession of domestic animals as defined in section 4.3, or for importation or possession of exempt exotic animals as defined in section 4.6 and listed in Rule 7. Persons wishing to obtain a permit to import or possess native wildlife as defined in section 4.13 can do so through the Department, Division of Fish and Wildlife. Application for an exotic animal possession permit must include the following for each species.

a) The number, sex, age, and true scientific name and means of permanent individual identification of each individual animal

b) The carrier and point of first arrival as well as the location where each animal will be kept within the state.

c) The purpose for which the exotic animal will be imported and possessed

d) The full name and complete address of the consignee and consignor

e) A “health certificate” (certificate of veterinary inspection) issued by a federally accredited veterinarian licensed in the state of origin of the exotic animal. The health certificate is to include the results and dates of any testing that was determined necessary by the Director prior to entry into the state of Rhode Island. The health certificate must be as defined in section 4.10 herein.

f) The location of where the animal(s) will be held in quarantine upon entry into the state of Rhode Island. This location and all enclosures must be inspected and approved prior to issuance of an exotic animal possession permit.

g) The location of where the animal(s) will be permanently held after release from quarantine. This location and all enclosures must be inspected and approved prior to issuance of an exotic animal possession permit.

h) The name and address of the veterinarian currently licensed in Rhode Island who will conduct the tests and examinations specified by the Department. A letter from a veterinarian currently licensed in Rhode Island stating that he/she will conduct any testing or examinations as will be required periodically by the Department

i) Except for AAZPA certified facilities, any person desiring to import or possess an exotic animal shall also provide a detailed written description to the Department of the manner in which the animal(s)’ nutritional, housing, and exercise needs will be met. Approval of this document must be made prior to issuance of an exotic animal possession permit.

j) Permit fee as specified by Rhode Island General Law 4-18-8

k) Letter from the Department, Division of Fish and Wildlife, endorsed by the Chief of that division or his/her designee stating that the species is neither considered a native species nor a nuisance species as defined in this document.

RULE 6 ISSUANCE AND CONDITIONS

1. Issuance of exotic animal import permits may be made by the Department upon the following:

a) Receipt of written application providing all of the information enumerated in RULE 5 not less than seven (7) days preceding the probable day of shipment of the animal(s).

b) Completion of an inspection by the department of the quarantine and final enclosures as enumerated in RULE 5 and approval of those enclosures.

c) Payment of the necessary permit fee as required under Rhode Island General Law 4-18-8.

d) Determination that possession of the exotic species will not endanger the public health or the health of native wildlife or domestic animals to an extent greater than possession of domestic animals or exempt exotic animals would.

e) Approval of the probable point of first entry into the state of Rhode Island

f) Receipt and approval by the State Veterinarian of a Health Certificate signed and issued within thirty (30) days of the anticipated arrival of the exotic animal. Such Health Certificate must be issued by a Federally Accredited Veterinarian licensed in the state of origin of the exotic animal(s), be countersigned by the State Veterinarian of the state of origin, and be accompanied by any test records determined to be necessary by the Department. The Health Certificate must state that the animals are free from signs of infectious, contagious, and zoonotic diseases in addition to the specific required tests.

2. The permit may, at the discretion of the Director, list specific conditions that must be met and maintained prior to issuance of an exotic animal possession permit.

3. The exotic animal possession permit is not transferable to another person or location without the expressed written permission to do so from the Director.

4. Any person in possession of an exotic animal possession permit must maintain possession of the animal(s) identified on that permit at the location specified on that permit, and the enclosures that were inspected prior to issuance of that permit.

5. Any modification of the enclosure must be inspected and approved before the permitted animal(s) are allowed to be housed within.

6. Any exotic animal as permitted shall not be used for breeding purposes without prior approval by the Department. If approval is granted, limits may be imposed as to the number of exotic animals allowed per location, enclosure, or person as in RULE 6 section 2.

7. The possessor of any permitted exotic animal must notify the Department within twenty-four (24) hours of the death of that animal, and immediately upon the escape of that animal.

 8. The exotic animal and the enclosure are subject to periodic inspection by representatives of the Department during normal business hours and without prior notice.

9. The Director may order immediate examination and testing of any permitted exotic animal(s) upon suspicion that the animal(s) may be harboring a disease that threatens public health or the health of domestic animals or native wildlife. Measures necessary to do so may include but not be limited to quarantine, seizure, euthanasia, and post-mortem examination.

10. Any person bitten, scratched or otherwise injured by an exotic animal must be immediately reported to the Animal Control Officer in the municipality where the animal is housed and to the State Veterinarian.

11. The release into the wild of any animal for which an exotic animal possession permit has been issued is prohibited whether or not such release was intentional or accidental.

12. Any animal imported with an exotic animal possession permit may, at the discretion of the Director, in accordance with RIGL 4-18-11, be required to undergo a period of quarantine. The terms of the quarantine will be established on a case-by-case basis. 

Citation: Rules and Regulations Governing Importation and Possession of Native WildlifeRules and Regulations Governing Importation and Possession of Exotic Wild Animals

SOUTH CAROLINA

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in South Carolina.

Note:

  • Wild carnivores, which include foxes, are not allowed to be sold as pets within the state of South Carolina.
  • In addition to the above, foxes are not legal to import (”bring into this State”) into South Carolina.
  • Any permits for importing and possession are not given for the purpose of pets/personal possession.

The legal jargon:

SECTION 47-5-20. Definitions.

(1) “Carnivore” means a flesh-eating animal and includes those animals known to be reservoirs of rabies including, but not limited to, raccoons, foxes, skunks, and bobcats and related species including, but not limited to, coyotes, wolves, wolf dogs, weasels, civet cats, spotted skunks, and lynx or the offspring born to any combinations of crossbreeding between these wild animals and domestic dogs or cats.

SECTION 47-5-50. Prohibition on sale of wild carnivores as pets; sale of domesticated ferrets.

(A) No carnivore, which normally are not domesticated, may be sold as pets in this State. A carnivore kept by an individual must not be allowed to run at large and then returned to confinement. A normally wild animal indigenous to this State, if held captive for a period of time, may be released into the wild. This section does not apply to domesticated ferrets. However, no ferret may be sold in this State without proper and current vaccination against rabies. Evidence of rabies vaccination is a certificate signed by a licensed veterinarian. A person who purchases or possesses a domesticated ferret shall maintain proper vaccination treatment for it annually.

S.C. CODE REGS. §50-16-20 - Importation of wildlife for certain purposes prohibited; investigation; permit.

(A) It is unlawful for a person to import, possess, or transport for the purpose of release or to introduce or bring into this State any live wildlife of the following types without a permit from the department:

(1) a furbearer, a member of the family Cervidae, a nondomestic member of the families Suidae (pigs), Tayassuidae (peccaries), Bovidae (bison, mountain goat, mountain sheep), coyote, bear, or turkey (genus Meleagris). Furbearer includes, but is not limited to, red and gray fox, raccoon, opossum, muskrat, mink, skunk, otter, bobcat, weasel, and beaver;

(2) a species of marine or estuarine fish, crustacean, mollusk, or other marine invertebrate not already found in the wild, or not native to this State.

(3) a species of freshwater fish, crustacean, mollusk, or other freshwater invertebrate not already found in the wild or not native to this State. 

Prohibition of Sale, Purchase, Donation, or Transfer of Ownership Wildlife as Pets – The Department of Health and Environmental Control’s (DHEC) Rabies Control Act (47-5-50) prohibits the sale, purchase, donation, or transfer of ownership of nondomesticated carnivores (raccoons, foxes, skunks, bobcats, coyotes, wolves, wolf dogs, weasels, civet cats, spotted skunks, and lynx or the offspring born to any combinations of crossbreeding (hybrids) between these wild animals and domestic dogs or cats) to private individuals in this State. It is illegal to import native furbearing species into the state for any purpose except with a permit issued by the SCDNR. Requests for importing furbearing animals for private possession violate the spirit of the Rabies Control Act and will be denied. (via South Carolina Hunting & Fishing).

Citation: S.C. CODE REGS. §47-5-50 (”Rabies Control Act”) & §50-16-20;South Carolina Hunting & Fishing

SOUTH DAKOTA

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in South Dakota.

Note:

  • Foxes require a possession permit that costs $10 per animal to a maximum of $100. Permits must be renewed annually.
  • Foxes also require a no-cost entry permit when being imported from out of state.

The legal jargon:

12:68:18:03. Permit required.

A permit from the board is required to import nondomestic animals. In addition, a permit as described in § 12:68:18:03.03 is required to possess in South Dakota any nondomestic mammal, or any of its hybrids, listed in this section:

(1) Of the order Carnivora, all nondomestic members of the following families:

(a) Felidae;

(b) Canidae;

© Ursidae;

(d) Mustelidae; and

(e) Hyaenidae;

(2) Of the order Artiodactyla, all nondomestic members;

(3) Of the order Perissodactyla, all nondomestic members of the following families:

(a) Tapiridae; and

(b) Rhinocerotidae; and

(4) Of the order Proboscidea, all members of the following families:

(a) African elephant; and

(b) Asian elephant; and

(5) Of the order Primates.

12:68:18:03.01. Specifically prohibited nondomestic mammals.

The board may issue only a temporary permit or a zoo permit for possession of the following nondomestic mammals or any of their hybrids. Possession of these mammals is otherwise specifically prohibited:

(1) Of the family Suidae, all nondomestic members; and

(2) Of the family Canidae, genus Nyctereutes, species procyonoides (raccoon dog).

A person possessing before December 31, 1993, a nondomestic mammal listed in this section may not translocate, purchase additions, or market the mammal within South Dakota. A person possessing such a mammal must quarantine the mammal and must obtain a grandfather permit until the mammal is disposed of.

12:68:18:03.02. Specifically restricted nondomestic mammals.

Possession of the following nondomestic mammals is restricted geographically to the area of South Dakota east of the Missouri River:

(1) Nondomestic mammals that are capable of crossbreeding with free-roaming wild elk, specifically including all red deer, sika deer, sambar, Pe’re Davids deer, and axis deer and any of their hybrids; and

(2) Nondomestic mammals that are capable of crossbreeding with free-roaming wild sheep and goats or competing aggressively for habitat utilized by wild sheep and goats, specifically including all mouflon, argali, urial, blue sheep, auodad, barbary sheep, and any of their hybrids.

12:68:18:03.03. Types of permits—Fees.

The board shall issue the following permits to persons who meet the requirements of this chapter and pay the required fee:

(1) Entry permit (no fee)—a permit allowing importation of captive nondomestic animals into South Dakota which may be granted by telephone;

(2) Temporary permit ($10)—a permit issued to an individual to possess for not more than 14 days a captive nondomestic mammal specifically prohibited in § 12:68:18:03.01 or restricted in § 12:68:18:03.02;

(3) Grandfather permit ($10 an animal to a maximum of $100)—a permit issued to an individual who possesses before December 31, 1993, mammals prohibited in § 12:68:18:03.01 or restricted in § 12:68:18:03.02;

(4) Dealer auction permit ($100)—an annual permit issued to an individual or a group solely for the purpose of brokering, leasing, purchasing, or selling mammals listed in this chapter whether or not a fee or other compensation is charged for such services;

(5) Possession permit ($10 an animal to a maximum of $100)—a permit issued for the possession of mammals listed in this chapter for any reason other than the conditions described in subdivisions (2), (3), and (4) of this section;

(6) Zoo permit ($10 an animal to a maximum of $100)—a permit issued to nonprofit exhibitors of nondomestic mammals. A zoo permit allows the possession of any class of nondomestic mammals. The board may approve the permit if it determines that facilities are adequate for confinement.

12:68:18:03.04. Application for permit.

The board shall provide application forms for all permits required by this chapter. An application must be submitted to the board before the applicant may possess any of the mammals listed in § 12:68:18:03. The permit application must contain all information required in § 12:68:18:06. The board shall issue the permit if the following requirements are met:

(1) The required fees are received;

(2) Grounds for denial as listed in § 12:68:18:09 do not exist; and

(3) The board determines that the facilities and procedures as described in the application are adequate for compliance with this chapter and to provide for the safety of other animals and humans.

12:68:18:06. Annual application required.

A person possessing captive nondomestic mammals listed in §§ 12:68:18:03 to 12:68:18:03.02, inclusive, must apply for a permit for captive nondomestic animals annually from the board by January 1.

The permit application shall include the following information:

(1) The applicant’s name, mailing address, and phone number;

(2) The legal description of the premises where the animals are held;

(3) An inventory by species, age, and sex of all mammals covered by this permit at application time;

(4) A listing of all mammals added to the premises within the past 12 months, including birth additions, and of all disappearances of mammals within the past 12 months, including purchases, sales, leases, gifts, deaths, and escapes. The list must include individual identification of all such mammals by either legible tattoo or eartag as defined in § 12:68:18:07, by a similar tag, or by electronic means; and

(5) A description of facilities used for confining mammals for such purposes as testing and identification.

Citation: SD ADC 12:68:18:03 & 12:68:18:06

TENNESSEE

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Tennessee.

Note:

  • Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) are Class II wild animals that are native to the state. Tennessee began issuing Class II permits for red and gray foxes again in 2015. Permits cost $31 USD.
    • Tennessee has a list of “approved” breeders that can be bought from, however, buying from an “approved” breeder is not required as long as one obtains their fox from a legal breeder and can prove that legality with a sales receipt and USDA papers.
  • Nonnative (exotic) foxes are Class III wild animals and require no permits except those required by the department of agriculture. They do, however, require an import permit.
  • Davidson County requires one to have a minimum of 5 acres to build an outdoor enclosure.

The legal jargon:

§ 70-4-401. Crimes and offenses

(a) It is unlawful for any person to possess, transport, import, export, buy, sell, barter, propagate or transfer any wildlife, whether indigenous to this state or not, except as provided by this part and rules and regulations promulgated by the Tennessee fish and wildlife commission pursuant to this part.
(b) No person shall possess Class I or Class II wildlife without having documentary evidence showing the name and address of the supplier of such wildlife and date of acquisition.

§ 70-4-403. Classifications

Live wildlife, kept and maintained for any purpose, shall be classified in the following five (5) classes:

(1) Class I–This class includes all species inherently dangerous to humans. These species may only be possessed by zoos, circuses and commercial propagators, except as otherwise provided in this part. The commission, in conjunction with the commissioner of agriculture, may add or delete species from the list of Class I wildlife by promulgating rules and regulations. The following is a listing of animals considered inherently dangerous:

(A) Mammals:

(i) Primates–Gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees, gibbons, siamangs, mandrills, drills, baboons, Gelada baboons;

(ii) Carnivores:

(a) Wolves–All species;

(b) Bears–All species; and

© Lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars, cheetahs, cougars–All species;

(iii) Order Proboscidia: Elephants–All species;

(iv) Order Perissodactyla: Rhinoceroses–All species; and

(v) Order Artiodactyla: Hippopotamus, African buffalo;

(B) Reptiles:

(i) Order Crocodylia: Crocodiles and alligators–All species; and

(ii) Order Serpentes: Snakes–All poisonous species; and

© Amphibians: All poisonous species;

(2) Class II–This class includes native species, except those listed in other classes;

(3) Class III–This class requires no permits except those required by the department of agriculture, and includes all species not listed in other classes and includes, but is not limited to, those listed in subdivisions (3)(A)-(Q). The commission, in conjunction with the commissioner of agriculture, may add or delete species from the list of Class III wildlife by promulgating rules and regulations:

(A) Nonpoisonous reptiles and amphibians except caimans and gavials;

(B) Rodents–Gerbils, hamsters, guinea pigs, rats, mice, squirrels and chipmunks;

© Rabbits, hares, moles and shrews;

(D) Ferrets and chinchillas;

(E) Llamas, alpacas, guanacos, vicunas, camels, giraffes and bison;

(F) Avian species not otherwise listed, excluding North American game birds, ostriches and cassowary;

(G) Semi-domestic hogs, sheep and goats;

(H) All fish held in aquaria;

(I) Bovidae not otherwise listed;

(J) Marsupials;

(K) Common domestic farm animals;

(L) Equidae;

(M) Primates not otherwise listed;

(N) Bobcat/domestic cat hybrids;

(O) Hybrids resulting from a cross between a Class II species and a domestic animal or Class III species;

(P) Cervidae except white-tailed deer and wild elk. Elk originating from a legal source while held in captivity for the purpose of farming shall be regarded as Class III wildlife. All other elk shall be wild elk and shall be regarded as Class II wildlife. No person shall possess elk in captivity within the eastern grand division of the state as defined in § 4-1-202 without having documentary evidence indicating the origin of the elk being held. This documentary evidence will be presented to the agents of the department of agriculture or the wildlife resource agency upon request. Sale documentation of offspring of purchased elk is not required; and

(Q) Furbearing mammals, including those native to Tennessee, raised solely for the sale of fur;

(4) Class IV–This class includes those native species that may be possessed only by zoos and temporary exhibitors; provided, that rehabilitation facilities may possess Class IV wildlife as provided by rules established by the commission if authorized by a letter from the director of the agency:

(A) Black bear (Ursus americanus );

(B) White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus );

© Wild turkey (Meleagris gallapavo ), including the eggs of wild turkey;

(D) Hybrids of a Class IV species other than bobcat shall be Class IV; and

(E) Animals that are morphologically indistinguishable from native Class IV wildlife shall be Class IV; and

(5) Class V–This class includes such species that the commission, in conjunction with the commissioner of agriculture, may designate by rules and regulations as injurious to the environment. Species so designated may only be held in zoos under such conditions as to prevent the release or escape of such wildlife into the environment.

§ 70-4-404. Permits; rules and regulations; fees

(a) The agency shall issue permits for possessing live wildlife as defined in this part.

(b)(1) The commission shall adopt reasonable rules for issuing permits to possess live wildlife and establishing the conditions of possessing wildlife. The conditions shall be directed toward assuring the health, welfare, and safety of animals, the public and, where necessary, the security of facilities in which the animals are kept.

(2) The executive director of the agency may authorize by letter permission to possess any class of wildlife for approved research studies or for the temporary holding of animals in the interest of public safety. The executive director may exempt specific events from the caging and handling requirements established for Class I wildlife. Approval of an exemption will be based on a written request that outlines safety precautions that must be implemented during the specified activity.

© Class I wildlife.

(1) Persons legally possessing Class I wildlife prior to June 25, 1991, shall obtain annually a personal possession permit to keep such Class I wildlife. To obtain a personal possession permit, such persons shall comply with all of the provisions of this part. After June 25, 1991, no new animals shall be brought into possession under authority of a personal possession permit. Persons in legal possession of one (1) or more species of Class I wildlife as of June 25, 1991, may maintain the lineage of such species up to a maximum of three (3) animals per species. Persons in legal possession of the offspring of such Class I wildlife shall have a maximum of twelve (12) months from the date of birth of such offspring to obtain appropriate permits for such offspring, or to dispose of such offspring through an appropriate commercial propagator, or by any other manner permitted by law within the state. The provisions of this section apply solely to persons in legal possession of Class I wildlife as of June 25, 1991, and shall not be construed to authorize new personal possession of Class I wildlife.

(2) The executive director shall issue a permit upon a satisfactory showing of qualifications to possess live wildlife under the following conditions:

(A) The applicant must be at least twenty-one (21) years of age;

(B) The applicant must have at least two (2) years of experience in the handling or care of the Class I species for which the applicant is applying, or, in the alternative, must take a written examination, developed and administered by the agency, evidencing basic knowledge of the habits and requirements, in regard to proper diet, health care, exercise needs and housing of the species to be covered by the permit. Experience gained while in violation of this part shall not be considered qualifying experience;

© The facilities for holding Class I wildlife must be located on the premises on which the permit holder resides or shall have a full-time resident caretaker to supervise the care and security of the facilities. Facilities for Class I animals may not be on premises of less than one (1) acre for a personal possession permit and three (3) acres for a commercial propagator facility permit, and may not be located in a multi-unit dwelling or trailer park; and

(D) The applicant must have a plan for the quick and safe recapture of the wildlife, or if recapture is impossible, for the destruction of any animal held under the permit. The applicant must have the legal authority to possess weapons or other equipment necessary to carry out the plan and, in fact, possess such weapons or other equipment.

(3) The permittee shall control and maintain Class I wildlife at all times in such a manner as to prevent direct exposure or contact between the animal or animals and the public; provided, that a trained elephant may be brought into contact with the public under the close supervision of a qualified trainer or handler.

(d) No person shall hold live wildlife in captivity without first obtaining the appropriate permit as provided in this part. The annual permits and fees for holding live wildlife are as follows:

(1)(A) Personal Possession. Class I: $150/animal or $1,000/facility; and

(B) Class II: $10.00/animal or $100/facility;

(2) Transfer of Ownership. A permit for transferring any Class I or II animal held under a personal possession permit. If the transfer of the animal is ordered by the agency, no transfer permit is required;

(3) Commercial Propagator. $1,000/facility for Class I wildlife;

(4) Propagator. $25.00/facility for small game birds and waterfowl; and $100/facility for all Class II wildlife except small game birds and waterfowl;

(5) Importation. $10.00/shipment or $100 per year;

(6) Temporary Exhibitor. $100/30 day period;

(7) Permanent Exhibitor. $500/year/facility;

(8) Commercial Wildlife Preserve. $150/year for big game; and $75.00/year for small game;

(9) Falconry. $40.00/year or other time period as might coincide with federal permit requirements;

(10) Qualification Examination. $10.00/examination; and

(11) Zoos, Nature Centers, Rehabilitation Centers, and Educational Exhibits Certified As Nonprofit. No charge.

§ 70-4-411. Imports; permits and papers

(a) All persons wishing to possess Classes I and II live wildlife obtained outside the state of Tennessee shall have in their possession the importation permit required by this part. The permit and all bills of lading and shipping papers relating to any wildlife that such person may have in such person’s possession shall be open and available for inspection at all reasonable times by authorized agency officers and employees for the purpose of ensuring compliance with the provisions of this part.

(b) Animals brought into this state under the authority of an annual importation permit must be reported to the agency within five (5) days of the date of importation.

© An importation permit is required for all interstate movement of live wildlife except Class III, except no permit is required for zoos and temporary exhibitors.

Citation: TN ST §§ 70-4-401 - 417

TEXAS

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Texas.

The legal jargon:

GUIDELINES FOR PROPAGATING LIVE FUR-BEARING ANIMALS

This publication is a summary of the requirements specific to holders of a Furbearing Animal Propahators License according to the Statewide Furbearing Animal and Trapping Proclamation (§65.371-§65.385) and Subtitle C, Chapter 71 (§71.001-§71.015) of the Parks and Wildlife Code. A Furbearing animal Propagator is a person licensed to take or possess a living furbearing animal and hold it for propagation or sale. Species subject to these requirements include badger, beaver, civet cat, all fox, mink, muskrat, nutria, opossum, otter, raccoon, ring-tailed cats and all skunks.

General License and Facility Standards Information

  • A Furbearing Propagation Permit does not authorize individuals to possess live furbearing animals as pets. This IS NOT a “pet permit.”

Citation: GUIDELINES FOR PROPAGATING LIVE FUR-BEARING ANIMALS

UTAH

 To put it simply: yes, some foxes are legal in Utah.

Note:

  • Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) only. All other species are prohibited and controlled and certificates of registration are not given for personal use.

The legal jargon:

R657-3-1. Purpose and Authority.

(1) Under Title 23, Wildlife Resources Code of Utah and in accordance with a memorandum of understanding with the Department of Agriculture and Food, Department of Health, and the Division of Wildlife Resources, this rule governs the collection, importation, exportation, transportation, and possession of animals and their parts.

(2) Nothing in this rule shall be construed as superseding the provisions set forth in Title 23, Wildlife Resources Code of Utah. Any provision of this rule setting forth a criminal violation that overlaps a section of that title is provided in this rule only as a clarification or to provide greater specificity needed for the administration of the provisions of this rule.

(3) In addition to this rule, the Wildlife Board may allow the collection, importation, transportation, propagation and possession of species of animal species under specific circumstances as provided in Rules R657-4 through R657-6, R657-9 through R657-11, R657-13, R657-14, R657-16, R657-19, R657-20 through R657-22, R657-33, R657-37, R657-38, R657-40, R657-41, R657-43, R657-44, R657-46 and R657-52 through R657-60. Where a more specific provision has been adopted, that provision shall control.

(4) The importation, distribution, relocation, holding in captivity or possession of coyotes and raccoons in Utah is governed by the Agricultural and Wildlife Damage Prevention Board and is prohibited under Section 4-23-11 and Rule R657-14, except as permitted by the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food.

(5) This rule does not apply to division employees acting within the scope of their assigned duties.

(6) The English and scientific names used throughout this rule for animals are, at the time of publication, the most widely accepted names. The English and the scientific names of animals change, and the names used in this rule are to be considered synonymous with names in earlier use and with names that, at any time after publication of this rule, may supersede those used herein.

R657-3-2. Species Not Covered by This Rule.

The following species of animals are not governed by this rule:

(1) Alpaca (Lama pocos);

(2) Ass or donkey (Equus asinus);

(3) American bison, privately owned (Bos bison);

(4) Camel (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius);

(5) Cassowary (All species)(Casuarius);

(6) Cat, domestic, including breeds that are recognized by The International Cat Association as Preliminary New, Advanced New, Non-championship, and Championship Breeds (Felis catus);

(7) Cattle (Bos taurus taurus);

(8) Chicken (Gallus gallus);

(9) Chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger);

(10) Dog, domestic including hybrids between wild and domestic species and subspecies (Canis familiaris);

(11) Ducks distinguishable morphologically from wild birds (Anatidae);

(12) Elk, privately owned (Cervus elaphus canadensis);

(13) Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae);

(14) Ferret or polecat, European (Mustela putorius);

(15) Fowl (guinea) (Numida meleagris);

(16) Fox, privately owned, domestically bred and raised (Vulpes vulpes);

(17) Geese, distinguishable morphologically from wild geese (Anatidae);

(18) “Gerbils” or Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus);

(19) Goat (Capra hircus);

(20) Hamster (All species) (Mesocricetus spp.);

(21) Hedgehog (white bellied)(Erinaceideae atelerix albiventris)

(22) Horse (Equus caballus);

(23) Llama (Lama glama);

(24) American Mink, privately owned, ranch-raised (Neovison vision);

(25) Mouse, house (Mus musculus);

(26) Mule and hinny (hybrids of Equus caballus and Equus asinus);

(27) Ostrich (Struthio camelus);

(28) Peafowl (Pavo cristatus);

(29) Pig, guinea (Cavia porcellus);

(30) Pigeon (Columba livia);

(31) Rabbit, European (Oryctolagus cuniculus);

(32) Rats, Norway and Black (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus);

(33) Rhea (Rhea americana);

(34) Sheep (Ovis aries);

(35) Sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps);

(36) Swine, domestic (Sus scrofa domesticus);

(37) Turkey, privately owned, pen-raised domestic varieties (Meleagris gallopavo). Domestic varieties means any turkey or turkey egg held under human control and which is imprinted on other poultry or humans and which does not have morphological characteristics of wild turkeys;

(38) Water buffalo (Bubalis arnee);

(39) Yak (Bos mutus); and

(40) Zebu, or “Brahma” (Bos taurus indicus)

R657-3-17. Collection, Importation or Possession for Personal Use.

(1) A person may collect, import or possess live or dead animals or their parts for a personal use only as follows:

(a) Certificates of registration are not issued for the collection, importation or possession of any live or dead animals or their parts classified as prohibited, except as provided in R657-3-36 or the rules and guidebooks of the Wildlife Board.

(b) A certificate of registration is required for collecting, importing or possessing any live or dead animals or their parts classified as controlled, except as otherwise provided by this rule or the rules and guidebooks of the Wildlife Board.

© A certificate of registration is not required for collecting, importing or possessing live or dead animals or their parts classified as noncontrolled.

(2) Notwithstanding Subsection (1), a person may import or possess any dead animal or its parts, except as provided in Section R657-3-8, for personal use without obtaining a certificate of registration, provided the animal was legally taken, is held in legal possession, and a valid license, permit, tag, certificate of registration, bill of sale, or invoice is available for inspection upon request.

Citation: UT ADC R657-3

VERMONT

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Vermont.

Note:

  • Foxes are not listed as Domestic or Unrestricted Wild Animals, and require an Importation and Possession Permit, which are only issued for bona fide scientific research or educational purposes.

The legal jargon:

10 V.S.A. App. § 18. Governing the importation and possession of wild animals, excluding fish

1.0 Authority

1.1 This rule is adopted pursuant to 10 V.S.A. § 4081(a) and (b) which authorizes the board to carry out the purposes of protecting the state’s wildlife, and 10 V.S.A. § 4709 which regulates the importation and possession of wild birds and animals in the state and establishes a permit application fee, and 10 V.S.A. § 4152 establishes scientific and education collection permits.

2.0 Purpose

2.1 It is the purpose of this regulation to carry out the mandate of the Vermont general assembly to control through a permit program the importation and possession of wild animals in Vermont as provided in 10 V.S.A. § 4709. It is the purpose of this statute and its regulations to protect the health, safety and welfare of animals, both wild and domestic, to prevent damage to agriculture and livestock, and to protect the health, safety and welfare of human inhabitants of the state of Vermont.

3.0 Definitions

3.1 Wild Animals or Wildlife - All animals, including mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles, excluding fish and those animals defined by the secretary of agriculture food and markets by rule as pets and those defined as domestic under paragraph 3.2 of this rule. Included in this definition is any part, product, egg, offspring, dead body, or part of the dead body of any such wildlife. Wildlife includes all subspecies of wildlife and any other group of wildlife of the same species, the members of which may interbreed when mature, including any hybrid species except wolf-hybrids. Wild animals taken or possessed, or reared in captivity remain wild animals and are not domestic or tame animals.

3.2 Domestic Birds and Animals - The department shall provide a list of domestic animals and shall update the list as needed, adding or deleting animals as necessary. The list shall be available on the department’s web site, from the department’s headquarters and from the department’s district offices. The list shall also be made available to the media as much as practicably possible to provide maximum notice to the public.

3.3 Board - Vermont fish and wildlife board

3.4 Department - Vermont fish and wildlife department

3.5 Commercial - To sell, have sold, or offer for sale as defined in 10 V.S.A. § 4001(22); barter, exchange and offering or exposing for sale; and possession with the intent to sell, import, or export.

3.6 Commissioner - fish and wildlife department commissioner as defined in 10 V.S.A. § 4001(27).

3.7 Dealer - Any person, who commercially buys or sells any wild animal, as defined in 3.5.

3.8 Unrestricted Wild Animals - Those species determined not to conflict with the purposes of this regulation.

3.9 Native Wildlife - Native to the state of Vermont, either historically or at present.

4.0 Imporation or possession of wild animals

4.1 Except as otherwise provided by law, it is unlawful for any person to bring into or possess in the state of Vermont any live wild animal, or live ovum or semen thereof, of any kind, unless upon application in writing, the person obtains from the commissioner a permit to do so; or the species of animal, ovum, or semen is listed as a domestic bird or animal, domestic pet, or unrestricted wild animal.

4.2 The importation and possession of dead wild animals, in accordance with all laws and regulations applicable in Vermont or the place of origin, for personal use are exempt from this regulation.

4.3 The importation, possession and regulation of pests and beneficial organisms regulated by the secretary of agriculture, food and markets is exempt from this regulation.

5.0 Permits

5.1 Dealer’s Permit

All commercial dealers in Vermont, including, but not limited to pet shop owners, persons raising frogs for sale as institutional experimental animals, and all persons who import, export, and/or sell wild birds and animals must first obtain a valid Dealer’s Permit from the department.

Except as provided herein, the cCommissioner shall not issue a permit for the keeping or possession of any wild animal in captivity, except for bona fide scientific or educational purposes as permitted by (10 V.S.A. § 4152).

For purposes other than importation and possession for bona fide research and educational purposes, the commissioner shall not issue a permit unless it has been determined that the wild animal or wildlife proposed to be brought into or possessed in the state does not conflict with the purpose of this regulation. The commissioner shall establish a list of Unrestricted Wild Animals that do not conflict with the purpose of this regulation, are commonly sold in the pet trade, and do not require an Importation and Possession Permit from the department.

The Unrestricted Wild Animals List will consist of those species that are determined to be no threat to the state’s native wildlife, minimal threat to human health and safety, and suitable as pets for the residents of the state. This list is expected to be revised periodically by the Commissioner depending on recent pet trade trends, disease, and health issues. The list shall be posted on the department website and made available at the department’s central and district offices.

In accordance with 10 V.S.A. § 4152, the commissioner may issue permits to collect birds, their nests and eggs and wild animals, or their parts thereof, for public scientific research, educational purposes, art, or photography.

Any person who collects any wild animal within the boundaries of the state of Vermont and sells said wild animal must obtain a Commercial Collection Permit from the department.

Any person importing or possessing any wild animal for the purposes of temporary exhibition must obtain from the commissioner a permit to do so; unless the species is listed as a domestic bird or animal, domestic pet, or unrestricted wild animal.

Any person breeding and propagating wild birds and animals in accordance with 10 V.S.A. § 5207 must obtain from the commissioner a license to do so; unless the species is listed as a domestic bird or animal, domestic pet, or unrestricted wild animal.

Citation: 10 V.S.A. App. § 18

VIRGINIA

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Virginia.

Note:

  • Excluding the natural red coloration, all colors of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are recognized as domestic animals.
  • Red colored red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) may only be owned for fur farming purposes.
  • Exotic fox species require a special permit issued by the department.

The legal jargon:

4 VAC 15-20-50. Definitions; “wild animal,” “native animal,” “naturalized animal,” “nonnative (exotic) animal” and “domestic animal.”

In accordance with §29.1-100 of the Code of Virginia, the following terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them by this section when used in regulations of the board:

“Wild animal” means any member of the animal kingdom, except domestic animals, including without limitation any native, naturalized, or nonnative (exotic) mammal, fish, bird, amphibian, reptile, mollusk, crustacean, arthropod or other invertebrate, and includes any hybrid of them, except as otherwise specified in regulations of the board, or part, product, egg, or offspring of them, or the dead body or parts of them.

“Native animal” means those species and subspecies of animals naturally occurring in Virginia, as included in the department’s 20072010 “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna of Virginia,” with copies available in the Richmond and regional offices of the department.

“Naturalized animal” means those species and subspecies of animals not originally native to Virginia which have established wild, self-sustaining populations, as included in the department’s 20072010 “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna of Virginia,” with copies available in the Richmond and regional offices of the department.

“Nonnative (exotic) animal” means those species and subspecies of animals not naturally occurring in Virginia, excluding domestic and naturalized species.

The following animals are defined as domestic animals:

  • Domestic dog (Canis familiaris), including wolf hybrids.
  • Domestic cat (Felis catus), including hybrids with wild felines.
  • Domestic horse (Equus caballus), including hybrids with Equus asinus.
  • Domestic ass, burro, and donkey (Equus asinus).
  • Domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus).
  • Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) including hybrids with wild sheep.
  • Domestic goat (Capra hircus).
  • Domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica), including pot-bellied pig.
  • Llama (Lama glama).
  • Alpaca (Lama pacos).
  • Camels (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius).
  • Domesticated races of hamsters (Mesocricetus spp.).
  • Domesticated races of mink (Mustela vison) where adults are heavier than 1.15 kilograms or their coat color can be distinguished from wild mink.
  • Domesticated races of red fox (Vulpes) where their coat color can be distinguished from wild red fox.
  • Domesticated races of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).
  • Domesticated races of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).
  • Domesticated races of chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger).
  • Domesticated races of rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus).
  • Domesticated races of mice (Mus musculus).
  • Domesticated races of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
  • Domesticated races of chickens (Gallus).
  • Domesticated races of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).
  • Domesticated races of ducks and geese distinguishable morphologically from wild birds.
  • Feral pigeons (Columba domestica and Columba livia) and domesticated races of pigeons.
  • Domesticated races of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).
  • Domesticated races of peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

4 VAC 15-30-40. Importation requirements, possession and sale of nonnative (exotic) animals.

A. Permit required. A special permit is required and may be issued by the department, if consistent with the department’s fish and wildlife management program, to import, possess, or sell those nonnative (exotic) animals listed below and in 4 VAC 15-20-210 that the board finds and declares to be predatory or undesirable within the meaning and intent of § 29.1-542 of the Code of Virginia, in that their introduction into the Commonwealth will be detrimental to the native fish and wildlife resources of Virginia:

MAMMALS

Order – Family – Genus/Species – Common Name

Carnivora – Canidae – All Species – Wild Dogs, Wolves, Coyote or Coyote hybrids, Jackals and Foxes

PERMIT REQUIREMENTS TO PROPAGATE AND SELL CERTAIN WILDLIFE CONDITIONS OF PERMIT

Pursuant to 4 VAC 15-30-10 it shall be unlawful to import, export, buy, sell, offer for sale, or liberate within the Commonwealth any wild animal unless otherwise specifically permitted by law or regulation. Under authority of § 29.1-103 (11) and § 29.1-412 of the Code of Virginia, the Propagate and Sell Permit shall authorize the holder to buy, possess, propagate, and sell certain wildlife.

PROPAGATION AND SELL PERMIT INFORMATION

3. Authorized Stocks: The following species are authorized for possession and sale by this permit:

Furbearers - Fur Farming Only (Captive-bred and raised)

  • Mink (Mustela vison)
  • Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes)
  • Grey Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)

Game Birds (Captive-bred and raised)

  • Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus)
  • Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) including all subspecies and hybrids
  • Hungarian Partridge (Perdix perdix)
  • Chukar (Alectoris chukar)

Migratory Game Birds (captive-bred and raised):

  • Ducks < all species native to Virginia >
  • Geese < all species native to Virginia >
  • Swans (Mute swans (Cygnus olor), will not be permitted for possession, propagation, purchase or sale on any new applications.)

Citation: 4 VAC 15-20-50, 4 VAC 15-30-40, Permit Requirements to Propagate and Sell Certain Wildlife

WASHINGTON

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Washington.

The legal jargon:

WAC 246-100-197

Rabies – Measures to prevent human disease.

a) All persons are prohibited from acquiring, selling, bartering, exchanging, giving, purchasing, distributing, or trapping to retain any bat, skunk, fox, raccoon, or coyote, except a zoological park, animal exhibitor, or research facility.

(b) All persons are prohibited from importing into the state any bat, skunk, fox, raccoon, or coyote, except a zoological park, animal exhibitor, or research facility under an entry permit issued by the director of the department of agriculture in consultation with the secretary of the department.

Citation: WAC 246-100-197

WASHINGTON DC 

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in Washington DC.

Note:

  • A person may only possess the following animals in Washington DC: domestic dogs, domestic cats, domesticated rodents and rabbits, captive-bred species of common cage birds, nonpoisonous snakes, fish, and turtles, and racing pigeons.

The legal jargon:

§ 8-1808. Prohibited conduct.

(h)(1) Except as provided in this subsection, no person shall import into the District, possess, display, offer for sale, trade, barter, exchange, or adoption, or give as a household pet any living member of the animal kingdom including those born or raised in captivity, except the following: domestic dogs (excluding hybrids with wolves, coyotes, or jackals), domestic cats (excluding hybrids with ocelots or margays), domesticated rodents and rabbits, captive-bred species of common cage birds, nonpoisonous snakes, fish, and turtles, traditionally kept in the home for pleasure rather than for commercial purposes, and racing pigeons (when kept in compliance with permit requirements).

(2) A person may offer the species enumerated in paragraph (1) of this subsection to a public zoo, park, or museum for exhibition purposes.

(3) This section shall not apply to federally licensed animal exhibitors; however, the Mayor retains the authority to restrict the movement of any prohibited animal into the District and the conditions under which those movements are made.

(4) The Mayor may allow a licensed wildlife rehabilitator, a licensed veterinarian, or a licensed animal shelter to maintain an animal prohibited in this subsection for treatment or pending appropriate disposition. 

(5) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply to persons who own or possess domestic dog hybrids of wolves, coyotes, or jackals prior to March 17, 1993.

Citation: DC CODE § 8-1808(h)

WEST VIRGINIA

 To put it simply: no, foxes are not legal in West Virginia.

The legal jargon:

No Importation or Pet Permits Issued for Raccoon, Fox or Skunk in West Virginia

Based upon serious public health and wildlife disease concerns associated with the raccoon rabies virus, the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (DNR) wants to remind the public that no Importation or Pet Permits are issued for raccoon, fox or skunk.

The Division of Natural Resources has not issued Wildlife Importation Permits for these species since 2001 and Pet Permits have not been issued since 2006. “The decision to deny Importation and Pet Permits for raccoon, fox and skunk has been made following careful deliberation and with concurrence from the West Virginia Department of Agriculture and West Virginia Bureau for Public Health. It is important for our citizens to know that just because they may be able to purchase these animals in other states; it is illegal to bring them into West Virginia. Those who transport or possess these animals face fines and the animals being confiscated,” said DNR Director Frank Jezioro.

The mid-Atlantic raccoon rabies epizootic, which began in the late 1970s, expanded rapidly and spread throughout the northeastern states by the mid-1990s. In an effort to stop the westward spread of raccoon rabies across North America, West Virginia has been participating in a regional oral rabies vaccine (Raboral V-RG) barrier program for the past seven years. “The United States Department of Agriculture has spent millions of dollars in West Virginia to implement this raccoon rabies barrier program, and we simply cannot risk the potential success of this program by allowing the importation and/or possession of live raccoons, foxes or skunks as pets at this time,” noted Jezioro.

**DNR**

Citation: West Virginia Division of Natural Resources

WISCONSIN

 To put it simply: yes, foxes are legal in Wisconsin.

Note:

  • Raising red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) is considered an agricultural activity and they are recognized as domestic animals by state law.
  • Other fox species require a license.

The legal jargon:

29.627 Domestic fur-bearing animal farms. The breeding, raising and producing in captivity, and the marketing, by the producer, of foxes, fitch, nutria, marten, fisher, mink, chinchilla, rabbit or caracul, as live animals, or as animal pelts or carcasses shall be considered an agricultural pursuit, and all such animals so raised in captivity shall be considered domestic animals, subject to all the laws of the state with reference to possession, ownership and taxation as are at any time applicable to domestic animals. All persons engaged in the foregoing activities are farmers and engaged in farming for all statutory purposes.

169.04. Possession of live wild animals

(1) Restrictions on possession.

(a) No person may possess any live wild animal unless the wild animal is legally obtained.

(b) No person may possess any live wild animal unless the person holds a license or other approval to possess the wild animal as required under this chapter or under s. 29.319 and the person is otherwise in compliance with this chapter and the rules promulgated under this chapter.

(2) Temporary possession.

(a) A person possessing a live native wild animal for a period not to exceed 24 hours is exempt from having a license or other approval as required under sub. (1)(b) if the person is possessing the wild animal for any of the following purposes:

1. To restrain or transport the wild animal for medical treatment by a veterinarian or by a person holding a rehabilitation license.

2. To remove or transport the wild animal from one location to a more appropriate location.

3. To restrain or transport the wild animal for game censuses or surveys, or other purposes authorized by the department.

(b) If a person possessing a live native wild animal under par. (a) determines that it is necessary to possess the wild animal for a period exceeding 24 hours after the time the wild animal was first possessed, the person shall request that the department approve an extension of the time period for the temporary possession. The department may either deny the requested extension or approve it for a specific period of time.

(d) If a live wild animal has been exposed to or infected with any contagious or infectious disease, as defined under rules promulgated by the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection under s. 95.001(2), during the time the wild animal is being temporarily possessed, the person possessing the wild animal shall ensure that a veterinarian files with the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection a copy of a valid certificate of veterinary inspection that certifies that the wild animal is free of any such diseases before releasing it into the wild.

(e) No person may operate on a live skunk to remove its scent glands unless the person holds a Class A or Class B captive wild animal farm license or unless the person is a veterinarian and the person bringing the skunk to the veterinarian holds such a license. A veterinarian to whom a person brings a live skunk for removal of its scent glands shall verify whether the person holds a Class A or Class B captive wild animal farm license. If the person does not hold such a license, the veterinarian shall notify that person that possession of a live skunk is illegal and shall notify the department.

(3) Wild animals under another jurisdiction. A live wild animal possessed by a nonresident under the legal authority of another state, province, or country may be possessed in this state by the nonresident for not more than 60 days from the date the wild animal enters the state if all of the following apply:

(a) The nonresident ensures that a veterinarian files a copy of a valid certificate of veterinary inspection for the wild animal with the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection.

(b) The nonresident holds every license or other approval that is required by the other state, province, or country.

(4) Exemption for certain wild animals.

(a) A person is exempt from holding a license or other approval as required under this chapter to possess live native wild animals if the wild animals are not endangered or threatened species and are any of the following:

1. Arthropods.

2. Chipmunks.

3. Pocket gophers.

4. Mice.

5. Moles.

6. Mollusks.

7. Opossums.

8. Pigeons.

9. Porcupines.

10. Rats.

11. Shrews.

12. English sparrows.

13. Starlings.

14. Ground squirrels.

15. Red squirrels.

16. Voles.

17. Weasels.

(b) A person is exempt from holding a license or other approval as required under this chapter to possess live nonnative wild animals that are not endangered or threatened species, except for any of the following:

1. Pheasants of the species Phasianus colchicus or Syrmaticus reevesii, chukar partridge, gray partridge, or red-legged partridge that are possessed for use under a bird hunting preserve license, a dog training license, a hound training license, a dog club training license, a dog trial license, or a hound trial license.

2. Nonnative wild birds of the family anatidae that are migratory birds.

3. Nonnative wild animals that are harmful wild animals.

(5) Exemption for certain persons and institutions.

(a) Each of the following is exempt from holding a license or other approval as required under this chapter to possess any wild animal:

1. A veterinarian, for the purpose of providing medical treatment to wild animals.

2. A public zoo or aquarium.

3. A circus or the Circus World Museum located in Baraboo, Wisconsin.

4. The department.

5. A person who is licensed under s. 95.68 or 95.71 and who is possessing the wild animal under the authority of the license.

6. A person who is licensed under s. 95.69 and who possesses wild animals for 10 days or less and solely for the purpose of resale or slaughter.

(b) For purposes of par. (a)1., “medical treatment” does not include rehabilitation.

(5m) Exemption for Certain Deer.

(a) A person holding a rehabilitation license who is rehabilitating white-tailed deer in Walworth County may possess these white-tailed deer after they have been rehabilitated without holding any other license or approval as required under this chapter and without being registered under s. 95.55 if all of the following conditions apply:

1. The deer were taken from the wild before August 1, 2003.

2. The license holder keeps the deer within a fenced area that has a double perimeter fence around the area and that complies with all of the requirements under the rules promulgated under s. 90.21(6).

3. The license holder identifies the deer by tagging or by other means as required by the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection.

4. The license holder does not propagate the deer or otherwise allow the deer to reproduce.

5. The license holder does not remove, or authorize the removal of, the deer from the facilities and premises that are approved for use under the rehabilitation license.

6. The license holder notifies the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection of any illness found in any of the deer.

7. If any of the deer dies, the license holder shall have the carcass tested for chronic wasting disease and shall have the test results submitted to the department of natural resources and the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection.

8. If any of the deer is found, as a result of testing, to have chronic wasting disease, the license holder shall have all of the deer destroyed.

(b) Legal title to the white-tailed deer subject to par. (a) remains with the state.

© The holder of the rehabilitation license who possesses the white-tailed deer as authorized under par. (a) shall immediately notify the department if any of the deer are not fenced as required under par. (a) 2., are not identified as required under par. (a) 3., reproduce, or are removed from the facilities and premises that are approved for use under the rehabilitation license.

(d) Upon notification under par. ©, or if the department determines that any of the conditions under par. (a) are not met, the holder of the rehabilitation license shall no longer be authorized to possess the white-tailed deer.

(e) If any of the deer escape from the facilities or premises that are approved for use under the rehabilitation license, the license holder shall notify the department immediately.

(f) The holder of the rehabilitation license may not release any of the deer subject to par. (a) into the wild without the prior approval of the department.

(6) Inapplicability to certain wild animals. (a) This section does not authorize the possession of harmful wild animals.

(b) The possession of native wild reptiles and native wild amphibians is subject to s. 169.12 and not to this section.

GENERAL FACILITY REQUIREMENTS

1. Pens must be structurally sound, kept in good repair, protect the captive animals from injury, hold the animals securely and prevent other animals from getting inside.

2. Most animals may not be kept in any part of a building or home where people live unless receiving temporary health care, treatment orspecial handling.

3. Areas used for storing food or bedding must be free of trash, animal waste, weeds, insects, etc.

4. All surfaces in a pen, including houses, dens, shelters, fixtures and objects must be easily cleaned or removed or replaced when worn or dirty. Surfaces must be free of rust and jagged edges or sharp points.

5. If raised floors are used they must be constructed so the animals’ feet cannot pass through the openings in the floor. If the floor is constructed of wire, a solid resting surface large enough to hold all the animals at the same time must be provided.

6. Animal and food wastes, bedding, debris, garbage, water, other fluids and wastes and dead animals must be frequently collected, removed and disposed of on a regular basis. The department recommends this be done on a daily basis.

7. Standing puddles of water must be drained or mopped up after cleaning or rain so the animals can stay dry.

8. Trash containers in food storage and preparation areas must be leak proof with tight fitting lids. The lids must remain on unless the caretaker is using them.

9. Supplies of food and bedding must be stored in a way that protects them from spoilage, contamination and pest infestation. You must be able to clean around and under the supplies. Foods requiring refrigeration must be stored in a refrigerator. All open food must be kept in a leak proof container with a tight fitting lid.

10. To promote the health of the captive animal an effective program for the control of insects, external parasites, birds and mammals that are pests needs to be developed and followed.

GENERAL PEN AND SHELTER REQUIREMENTS

1. Pens must be large enough to allow each captive wild animal to make normal position changes with plenty of freedom of movement.

2. All captive wild animals housed in the same enclosure must be compatible. Vicious or aggressive animals must be housed separately.

3. Outdoor facilities must provide shelter large enough to fit all animals inside comfortably.

4. Shelters need 4 sides, a roof and a floor and must provide the animals with protection from the cold, heat, sun, snow, wind and rain.

5. A wind and rain break must be provided at the shelter entrance.

6. Shelters need clean dry bedding material if the temperature falls below 50F. Additional bedding is needed if temperatures fall below 35F.

7. Metal barrels, cars, refrigerators, freezers and similar objects may not be used for shelters.

8. Shelters must be ventilated to provide for animal health and well being, and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels and moisture. Ventilation can be provided by windows, doors, vents, fans or air conditioning.

9. Shade areas large enough to contain all the captive wild animals at one time must be provided to protect them from the sun.

10. Outdoor shelter for captive wild birds: May consist of natural vegetation, which provides protection from he sun, wind, rain and snow

SPECIAL PEN REQUIREMENTS

COYOTE, FOX AND FISHER PENS

  • These pens must be a minimum of 144 square feet for coyote and 120 square feet for fox and fisher.
  • No more than 2 animals may be held in a minimum square foot pen.
  • A minimum of at least 50 additional square feet is required for each additional animal.
  • The pen height must be a minimum of 6 feet. 

Citation: WI ST 29.627, WI ST 169.04, Captive Wildlife Pen Specifications & Transportation Standards

WYOMING

 To put it simply: yes, some foxes are legal in Wyoming.

Note:

  • Gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and swift foxes (Vulpes velox) may be imported and possessed with a permit.
  • Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may be possessed without a permit, but they cannot be imported into the state.
  • Exotic foxes may not be imported and possessed because they “pose a threat to Wyoming’s native foxes in the form of possible hybridization, competition, disease or parasitism.”

The legal jargon:

WYOMING GAME AND FISH COMMISSION

CHAPTER 10

REGULATION FOR IMPORTATION, POSSESSION, CONFINEMENT, TRANSPORTATION, SALE AND DISPOSITION OF LIVE WILDLIFE

Section 5. Importation/Possession Permit Required For Live Wildlife.

Except as exempted in this regulation, a permit from the Department is required prior to importation, possession, confinement, or transportation of any living wildlife. Any living wildlife may be transported through the state of Wyoming if the person transporting said wildlife is in possession of a valid permit for interstate transportation of live wildlife. An interstate transportation permit shall be valid as long as live wildlife are confined within the conveyance. It is a violation of this regulation to intentionally or unintentionally release within Wyoming any wildlife held under an interstate transportation permit.

(a) Importation/Possession Without Permit. The animals listed in this subsection are exempt from this regulation and may be imported, possessed, transported, or confined without securing a permit from the Department. (However, the Wyoming Livestock Board should be contacted regarding their regulations.)

(i) Birds

  • Cage and aviary birds,
  • Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus),
  • Domesticated emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae),
  • Domestic greylag goose (Anser anser),
  • Domesticated guinea fowl (Numida meleagris),
  • Domestic mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) distinguished morphologically from wild mallards,
  • Domestic muscovy duck (Cairina moschata),
  • Domesticated ostrich (Struthio camelus),
  • Domesticated peafowl (Pavo cristatus),
  • Pigeons (Columba livia),
  • Domesticated rhea (Rhea americana and Rhea pennata),
  • Domestic swan goose (Anser cygnoides),
  • Domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) distinguished morphologically from wild turkeys,
  • Predacious birds as defined in Wyoming Statute §23-1-101(i)(vii): English (house) sparrow (Passer domesticus) and starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

(ii) Mammals

  • Domesticated alpaca (Lama pacos),
  • Ass, burro, and donkey (Equus asinus),
  • Bison (Bison bison); except those classified as wild bison by the Wyoming Game and Fish Commission and the Wyoming Livestock Board,
  • Domesticated camel (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius),
  • Cat (Felis catus),
  • Domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus),
  • Domesticated chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger),
  • Dog (Canis familiaris),
  • Domestic ferret (Mustela furo),
  • Domesticated Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus),
  • Domestic goat (Capra hircus),
  • Domesticated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus),
  • Domesticated hamster (Mesocricetus auratus),
  • Horse and pony (Equus caballus),
  • Domesticated llama (Lama glama),
  • Domesticated mouse (Mus musculus),
  • Mule and hinny (Equus asinus x Equus caballus),
  • Domesticated European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus),
  • Domesticated rat (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus),
  • Domestic sheep (Ovis aries), distinguished morphologically from wild sheep,
  • Domestic swine (Sus domesticus),
  • Domesticated vicuna (Vicugna vicugna),
  • Domesticated yak (Bos grunniens).
  • Predatory animals, excluding wolves and wolf hybrids, as defined in Wyoming Statute §23-1-101(a)(viii): coyote (Canis latrans), jackrabbit (Lepus townsendi and Lepus californicus), porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), raccoon (Procyon lotor), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), skunk (Mephitis mephitis and Spilogale putorius). Wolves (Canis lupus) or wolf hybrids may not be possessed, imported or sold.

(b) Live wildlife listed in this subsection (excluding any that are endangered or threatened), may be imported, possessed, confined or transported without securing a permit from the Department under this regulation as long as wildlife are held in compliance with appropriate Commission regulations and Wyoming Statutes. A certificate of veterinary inspection shall be issued prior to live wildlife listed in this subsection being imported into the State of Wyoming, unless otherwise specified in this regulation. The Wyoming Game and Fish Commission may consider an application for importation or possession of any animals listed in this subsection that are endangered or threatened by governmental entities, or institutions of higher education for education or research, or to meet Department wildlife management goals, when a need is demonstrated by the applicant.

POSSESSING WILDLIFE

A Guide to Understanding Wildlife Possession Laws and Regulations in Wyoming

Wildlife conservation within Wyoming is the statutory responsibility of the Wyoming Game and Fish Commission and is implemented by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department. Scientific evidence clearly demonstrates that importation, possession, confinement, transportation, sale and disposition of wildlife may result in disease, genetic, ecological, environmental and other threats to Wyoming’s wildlife.

How Do I Use This Guide?

The chart on the following pages lists various species with associated information on whether or not they may be possessed and/or imported into the state of Wyoming and each species’ Chapter 10 Permit requirements.

Footnotes and comments incorporate some of the Wyoming Department of Heath and Wyoming Livestock Board rules. Please note that most animals must have a current veterinary health inspection certificate for transport across county or state lines. All game birds also require a Certificate of Origin prior to importation.

Permit requirements may vary depending on the proposed use of the wildlife and whether the animal is to be imported into, or simply possessed in Wyoming.

Wildlife Possession & Importation Guide

This list is not intended to be an inclusive list of all wildlife species. If you have questions regarding the possession and/or importation of any species not delineated in this guide, please contact the nearest Game and Fish Office for additional information.

Species – Possession Allowed? – Importation Allowed? – WGFD Possession Permit – WGFD Importation Permit – Comments

Fox, Gray – Yes – Yes – Yes – Yes – None

Fox, Red – Yes – No – No – N/A – None

Fox, Swift – Yes – Yes – Yes – Yes – None

Citation: Wyoming Game and Fish Commission Chapter 10 Section 5,Possessing Wildlife: A Guide to Understanding Wildlife Possession Laws and Regulations in Wyoming

CANADA:

MANITOBA
Are foxes legal ➝ NO
Person contacted on this matter ➝ BLAIRE BARTA, legislative specialist of the Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship.
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / (204) 945-7749 
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « In order for a person to possess domestic foxes in Manitoba, they would require a permit. However a permit would not be issued to a person to possess wildlife in Manitoba to keep as a pet, including Vulpes vulpes. » (the only legal way to possess a fox in Manitoba is if you are an accredited zoological facility, a wildlife rescue or a rehabilitation center). 

« With regards to Domestic Fennec Foxes, unfortunately these animals are not legal to own within the City of Winnipeg. As per City of Winnipeg Exotic Animal By-law 3389/83, no person, firm or corporation shall keep or harbour "All members of order Carnivora excepting domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), domestic cats (Felis catus) and ferrets. » (Dogs, cats, ferrets, fish, some reptiles (snakes and lizards), some amphibians, some birds and some rodents are the only allowed animals).

Laws (The Wildlife Act of Manitoba) ➝ http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/w130e.php
•  http://www.winnipeg.ca/cms/animal/faqs/exotic_faq.stm 

• http://www.winnipeg.ca/CLKDMIS/DocExt/ViewDoc.asp?DocumentTypeId=1&DocId=480


SASKATCHEWAN
Are foxes legal ➝ NO
Person contacted on this matter ➝ PENNY LALONDE, licensing specialist of Ministry of Environment (fish and wildlife branch).
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / 306-787-6218 / [email protected]
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « All foxes are defined as wildlife whether it is native or exotic wildlife, it is still wildlife and there are legalities to owning one in captivity in Saskatchewan and a permit would be required to import and retain them in the province. The only permit issued by the Ministry of Environment that allows an individual to retain restricted wildlife in captivity is a Commercial Wildlife Permit for Zoo Purposes. » (so basically you have to own a whole entire zoo in order to have a fox. Not so tempting).

« No, they are not legal to import or possess in captivity if you don't have the Zoo permit, but that implies that you should be owner or a zoo facility. There are different color phases of foxes, just as there are different color phases of the black bear but that does not change the genetics of the animal. It is considered wildlife and it is illegal to import or possess. » (all species of foxes, whether they display captive-bred colours or not, are unlawful to possess as pets). 

« Wildlife not listed in Section 3 of the Captive Wildlife Regulations may not be held in captivity without a licence/permit. » (foxes aren't listed, therefore illegal.)

« Foxes are considered livestock, wild or otherwise, according to the attached bylaw. 
Section 26 states: Prohibition Against Livestock
26 • No person shall keep livestock in any area of the City unless the livestock are kept as part of a public agricultural exhibition or exposition operation or agricultural fair. »

Laws (The Captive Wildlife Regulations) ➝ http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Regulations/Regulations/W13-1R13.pdf (W-13.1 REG 18, part 3 states ALL species that are allowed without a license. Other species require a zoo permit, which implies owning an accredited zoological facility or a wildlife farm).

NOVA SCOTIA
Are foxes legal ➝ NO
Person contacted on this matter ➝ BOB D. PETRIE, legislative specialist of the Wildlife and Natural Resources Division (fish & wildlife branch).
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / # unknown
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « In Nova Scotia, all foxes and other canids (except the domestic dog) are considered 'wildlife' and are therefore not permitted to be kept in captivity without special permission. Canids (except for the domestic dog) are not allowed to being kept as personal pets. » (unless you have special permission, which you could only receive by contacting [email protected], you cannot legally possess a fox within the limits of the province of Nova Scotia).

Laws (The Wildlife Act of Nova Scotia) ➝  
• http://www.gov.ns.ca/natr/wildlife/laws/pdf/App2.pdf (wildlife legal to be owned as a pet without a permit. Wildlife not listed on the document linked previously may NOT be kept/imported as a pet within the province).

ALBERTA
Are foxes legal ➝ NO (unless you apply for a permit to the Wildlife Ministries of Alberta and get an approbation). 
Person contacted on this matter ➝ IVAN, from the 311 Services of the city of Edmonton.
Contact (email/phone) ➝ Animal Services (780) 496-8860 / [email protected]

Laws (The Wildlife Act of Alberta) ➝ http://www.qp.alberta.ca/documents/Acts/W10.pdf

 

BRITISH COLUMBIA
Are foxes legal ➝ YES (Permit must be given to you by the Wildlife and Game Preservation before acquiring a red fox or arctic fox (including their captive-bred colour mutations), and your enclosure must be approved by the wildlife agents prior to welcoming the fox onto your property --- fennec foxes, grey foxes and other fox species non-native to BC can only be owned by a citizen holding a valid CAS "Controlled Alien Species" permit and whose enclosure is approved by the Fish & Wildlife Ministries). 
Person contacted on this matter ➝ NURIE ALIPERTI, Wildlife and CAS Permit Administrator and KATE THOMPSON, manager at Media Relations.
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / (250) 952 0681
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « Red, silver, arctic foxes are considered wildlife and you will require a permit given by the Wildlife and Game Preservation,  to be in legal possession of that fox – regardless of whether it is wild or “domestic”. The permit is to be submitted before the animal's purchase, after which wildlife agents will come inspect your property and enclosure. If you don't meet the proper requirements for the enclosure the permit application will be canceled. »

« Fennec fox (Vulpes zerda), the Grey fox, as well as other non-native species are members of the family Canidae and are therefore considered to be Controlled Alien Species and, as of April 1, 2010, a person in BC is required to hold a valid CAS permit in order to be in legal possession of it. » (you can have any non-native fox specie, as long as the Fish & Wildlife Ministries approves your application for a CAS permit). There are enclosure requirements coming with this permit, however they are not as strict as the ones for red, silver and arctic foxes.
• CAS permit application  http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/pasb/applications/docs/cas-personal-permit.pdf 

Laws (List of Controlled Alien Species + The Wildlife Act of BC) ➝ http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/fw/wildlifeactreview/cas/pdf/common-all.pdf (lists ALL the illegal-to-be-kept-as-pets species).
• http://vancouverhumanesociety.bc.ca/downloads/VHS%20submission%20to%20review%20of%20BC%20Wildlife%20Act.pdf 

(specifications about captive exotic animals
• http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/pasb/docs/wildlife_act/GeneralReg_Nov2005.pdf 
 Details concerning the CAS permit) http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/fw/wildlifeactreview/cas/

ONTARIO
Are foxes legal ➝ YES (only non-native "exotic" species that are not endangered).
Person contacted on this matter ➝ KATHY KIRKLAND, Captivity Biologist of Laws.
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / (416) 338-7297
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « You may purchase and keep a non-native species of fox as a pet in Ontario. There is no provincial permit or license required for the keeping of non-native species as pets; however some municipalities prohibit ownership of foxes and other species as pets. » (like I stated in the description at the beginning of this page, you should always call and ask your municipality about the animal's legality in the city, before actually purchasing it. If your animal is not legal in the city and you get reported, it will be seized and most likely euthanized).

« It is unlawful to keep the three species of fox native to Ontario as pets, as they are designated as specially protected wildlife under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1997. This includes Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus), Grey Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes). »

Laws (Wildlife Preservation + Municipalities Act) ➝ http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/en/Business/FW/2ColumnSubPage/STEL02_168424.html

NEWFOUNDLAND

Are foxes legal ➝ NO

Person contacted on this matter ➝ BRUCE RODRIGUES, Ecosystem Management Ecologist from the Depart. of Environment and Conservation (W.D.)
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / (709) 637-2050
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « If the species being considered is the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) your request would likely be turned down, since we do not allow native wild species to be kept as pets. »

« We will not be permitting fennec foxes as pets.  This policy would be in line with the recommendations of the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council of Canada, an organization which represents the pet industry in Canada.  The only canid allowed for possession in Newfoundland and Labrador would be dogs. » (any other exotic non-native fox is illegal too).

« The Arctic Fox will not be allowed as a pet. Native species are not allowed as pets. » (therefore red, grey, swift and arctic foxes aren't permitted either).

Laws (The Wildlife Act of Newfoundland) ➝ http://www.assembly.nl.ca/Legislation/sr/Regulations/rc961156.htm#SchedB_ (lists all animals that can be legally brought and owned into the province without a permit. Foxes aren't part of the legal list, therefore, not legal to import nor own in the province of Newfoundland. Any animal not listed on that document cannot be imported/kept within the boundaries of the province).

NEW BRUNSWICK
Are foxes legal ➝ YES (but strictly captive-bred colours of the Red fox; they cannot be left to run free out of the owner's property).
Person contacted on this matter ➝ Someone from Dep. of Natural Resources & JACQUES DOIRON, by-law Enforcement Officer & Emo Coordinator.
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / (506) 453-3826 / [email protected] / (506) 737-6707
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « It is not permitted to keep foxes or any canids, other than domestic dogs, as pets in New Brunswick. However, we make an exception for foxes presenting unusual colors that cannot be seen on wild specimens. » (wild foxes, wolves, all canid hybrids, jackals, coyotes [...] are illegal).

« Foxes on Fox farms in New Brunswick are considered livestock, not pets, and fall under the jurisdiction of the Livestock Operations Act. » (New Brunswick fox farms don't sell live foxes to the general public; they can only sell pelts. They strictly sell - or trade - live fox to other fur farms or, in some cases, to legit zoological facilities. It is unlawful for them to sell a live fox to an individual that is not properly licensed or authorized to keep such animal in captivity in the province of NB).

« You do not need a permit for the animal but, article 2c) of our municipal by-law respecting animal control (# 10R2011), says that all wild animals must be in a cage if it is in a public place, street or sidewalk. This means that you can own a fox but you must have it in a cage if you leave your premises. » (basically, you are allowed to have a fox, but you can only let it free at your property. If you decide to bring your fox in town or any other public places, you MUST lock it up in a cage). 

Laws (Exotic Wildlife Regulation) ➝ http://www.gnb.ca/0062/PDF-regs/92-74.pdf (Regulation 92-74 lists all species legal to be imported/kept as pets). 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (PEI)
Are foxes legal ➝ YES (only in Summerside's municipality though).
Person contacted on this matter ➝ RICHARD COLLINS
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / 902 368 4683 
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « To bring foxes into the province or to breed them you need a permit and to keep a fox in captivity may be a violation if you are not in possession of a permit authorizing you to do so. I would strongly suggest you contact Chuck Garrision at 902 368 4683 who is the Wildlife Captivity Officer for the Province. »

SUMMERSIDE CITY ➝ « ...you can obtain an animal permit from the Animal Control Officer in order to keep/harbour these animals within the city + your adjacent neighbours will need to sign off as well. » (''your neighbours will need to sign off'' means they will have to sign an official contract (possibly your permit) which will be proof that they agreed to you having a fox in the neighbourhood - foxes scream and smell, things which could easily bother the neighbours in the long term. If they sign the contract/permit, they agree to tolerate the occasional disturbances that the fox will cause). 

Laws (The Wildlife Act of PEI) ➝ http://www.gov.pe.ca/law/statutes/pdf/w-04_1.pdf (Summerside allows all federally legal fox species, as long as you are in possession of a provincial permit (contact Chuck Garrision for more information), an animal permit (given by the Animal Control Officer) and that you have the written consent of your neighbours to harbour such an animal in their surroundings).


NUNAVUT

Are foxes legal ➝ NO (foxes are frequently trapped/hunter in Nunavut, and orphan kits are very commonly taken in by local residents and raised as companions or "pets" - no rescued fox has ever been seized for being illegally owned, however, we do not condone this kind of action as it could, one day, put the life of one fox in jeopardy. If you find an injured/orphan fox, please contact the Ministries of Wildlife of your territory to inquire what to do with the animal).
Person contacted on this matter ➝ JIMMY KENNEDY, Coordinator of Regulations and Operations at the Department of Environment from the Wildlife Management Division.
Contact (email/phone) ➝  [email protected]  /  (867) 934 2052
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « Under the Nunavut Wildlife Act the fox species that are listed as “furbearers” include: Alopex (white fox and arctic fox) and Vulpes (red, cross, black and silver fox). Therefore if the species of fox you are looking at as a domestic pet falls into either of these then it would be considered a furbearer. It would also not be allowed to be imported into Nunavut or possessed in the Territory. » (native species of foxes, which are Red foxes and Arctic foxes [including their captive-bred colour mutations] cannot be legally possessed within the Territory). 
Section 39 of the Wildlife Licence and Permits Regulations does not allow for the importation of live vertebrates that, in its natural range, is found wild in nature. So this would not allow Gray, Fennec, Bat-Earred, and Corsac foxes. » (fox species which are not native to Nunavut aren't permitted either).

Laws (The Wildlife Act of Nunavut) ➝ http://www.bcmanr.ca/files/Nunavut_Wildlife_Act.pdf


NORTHWEST TERRITORIES (N.W.T)
Are foxes legal ➝ YES (all federally legal species of foxes can be owned in N.W.T. if you are given a permit by the Deputy Minister and go through the application process, which includes the submission of a health certificate for the fox indicating the animal is in good health, given by a licensed veterinarian). 
Person contacted on this matter ➝ MARK HEYCK, Mayor of the City of Yellowknife.
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected]  /  (867) 920-5693
Excerpts of our conversation ➝  « Anyone wishing to import live wildlife into the NWT must first go through an application process and obtain a permit. The application requires submission of a health certificate from a licensed veterinarian indicating the animal is in good condition and free of diseases, parasites, etc. Once the application is received, it is evaluated and a determination is made by the Deputy Minister on whether or not to issue the permit. » (Permit can be picked up at the ENR north slave office near the old Johnson's Building Supply location).

Laws ➝ from the Department of Environment and Natural Ressources.

YUKON TERRITORIES (YUKON)
Are foxes legal ➝ YES (however, being approved is incredibly hard; you have to email a request to own captive wildlife to the government of Yukon - see request below -  and send it to the township of Whitehorse by email).
Person contacted on this matter ➝ DAVID BAKICA, District Conservation Officer.
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / (867) 393-7078
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « All of the animals you describe in your original e-mail would be considered Wildlife under or legislation. At this time there is a moratorium on captive wildlife in the Yukon and new regulations are going to be created regarding captive wildlife. I do not believe regulations are even in the draft stage yet so likely they will not be in place for several years at least. » (currently in the process of debating new laws regarding captive wildlife - to be updated when the results are publicly released).

« To be clear, any of the foxes you describe are considered Wildlife under our legislation, and it would be illegal to have any of them alive in captivity in Yukon.»

Laws (The Wildlife Act of Yukon) ➝ http://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/acts/wildlife.

Here’s the request that must be completed in order to see if the government accepts your exotic pet.
134. Every owner of an exotic animal shall register their animal with the City by providing the following information for each exotic animal that is under their care :
(1) Name, street address, postal code and telephone number of the owner;
(2) Name and description of the exotic animal; and
(3) Such other information as may be required by the City (picture of animal, age, health certificate, etc...).

QUÉBEC
Are foxes legal ➝ YES/OUI (only Vulpes vulpes [Red fox], Vulpes lagopus [Arctic fox] and their hybrids [Red fox/Arctic fox cross]) specimens that are easily distinguishable from wild foxes by their size, colour or shape). Seuls les renards roux (Vulpes vulpes), renards arctiques (Vulpes lagopus) et leurs hybrides qui ne sont pas roux en couleur sont légaux, par exemple, le renard platine, marble, cannelle, argenté, etc. 
Person contacted on this matter ➝ ALAIN CHAINÉ, legislative specialist of the Ministries of Wildlife and Environment.
Contact (email/phone) ➝ [email protected] / (418) 521-3888 post 7384
Excerpts of our conversation ➝ « La Loi sur la conservation et la mise en valeur de la faune, et particulièrement le Règlement sur les animaux en captivité, interdit la garde d’un renard (Vulpes vulpes) comme animal de compagnie et la possession à des fins personnelles. » 

« Par contre, certains spécimens de renard se distinguent facilement part leur taille, forme ou couleur des individus sauvages qu’on pourrait voir en nature. Ces spécimens ne correspondraient alors pas à la définition du mot animal de la Loi et pourraient être gardés en captivité comme animal de compagnie. » (Red foxes that can easily be distinguished from wild foxes by their size [some captive-bred foxes can weight up to 35 pounds, while the average wild fox weighs 8-12 pounds], their shape [tailless fox, floppy ears, curly tail...] and their colour [captive-bred colours such as marble, platinum, cinnamon, amber, pearl, white faced...] can be legally possessed within the province without a permit). 
Therefore, all captive-bred colours which are easily distinguishable from the native colour (red) are legal. Foxes which can be distinguished from wild foxes by their shape (floppy ears, curly tail, etc.) can be legally possessed, even if they are red - because their shape does not correspond that of a typical wild fox. 

Laws (Loi sur la conservation et la mise en valeur de la faune) ➝ http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?&file=/C_61_1/C61_1R5.HTM
English version ➝ http://www.canlii.org/en/qc/laws/stat/rsq-c-c-61.1/latest/rsq-c-c-61.1.html 

Magog  : You need a permit issued by the Ministries of Wildlife & Environment, if some measures are respected.
Gatineau, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Sainte-Hyacinthe : Foxes are illegal to own in the limits of these cities.
Not all cities in Quebec accept foxes as pets. Make sure you contact your city to find out whether foxes are legal or not to own there, and don't forget to have written proof that they are indeed legal. 

 

Source Accessed and Modified, Chart, 5/28/2010; www.bornfreeusa.org/b4a2_exotic_animals_map.php

Source Accessed and Modified, State Laws, 3/13/2016; www.theartfulfox.tumblr.com

Source Accessed and Modified, Laws, 3/13/2016; www.livingwithfoxes.weebly.com